Rev Date: 05/03/2019 17 www.seielect.com
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Stackpole Electronics, Inc.
Resistive Product Solutions
Packaging and Technical Information
Resistor Glossary (cont.)
DIP Dual-in-line package resistor network.
Method of deriving nominal resistance values required for each tolerance level. The series E24 is comprised of 24 values per
decade and applies to 2% and 5% tolerances. The series E96 applies to 1% tolerance and E192 applies to 0.1%, 0.25% and
The failure rate indicates the statistically established maximum rate of failures at a level of confidence of 60%. The figures are
derived from certified results of standard endurance tests after 1000 hours duration at the rated dissipation.
The temperature of the resistive film is considered in discussions about power rating and pulse load capability. The film
temperature determines the drift and stability of the resistor. For resistors that feature hot spots in the resistive film, the higher
temperature of the hot spot is to be considered. Since most resistors are covered with lacquer or protective coating, only the
surface temperature can be measured on the outside. However, the surface temperature is almost as high as the film
Fixed resistors Resistors whose value is set in the manufacturing process.
Insulation resistance The DC resistance measured between all terminals connected together and the case, exterior insulation, or external hardware.
Four-terminal connection required in low-resistance measurements to eliminate the effects of contact resistance and lead
resistance, as well as the effects of lead temperature, providing accurate measurements. Invented by Lord Kelvin in the 19th
The maximum voltage stress (DC or rms) that may be applied to the resistor (resistance element).
A function of the materials used, the required performance, and the physical dimensions.
Resistor whose resistance element is a thick film ruthenium oxide paste deposited on a cylindrical ceramic core by means of
dipping or spiral-coating.
The limiting element voltage Vmax is the maximum voltage that may be applied continuously to the resistor, provided its
resistance value is equal to or higher than the critical resistance. The limit applies to DC voltages and to AC rms voltage of
undistorted sinusoidal shape.
Maximum power in still air that will limit the resistor internal hot-spot temperature to a satisfactory level. Power ratings must
be reduced as the temperature rises, so derating curves or charts are published. These parameters are application-
The pulse load capability of a resistor is its ability to withstand transient loads that considerably exceed the rated dissipation
with its peak value.
The magnitude of change in resistance due to temperature, expressed in percent or degree centigrade or parts-per-million
per degree centigrade (PPM/C). If the resistance changes are linear over the specified temperature range, the parameter is
known as the temperature "coefficient". This assumption of linearity is usually made in order to ease calculations.
The permissible deviation of the manufactured resistance value (express in percent) from the specified nominal resistance
value at standard or stated environmental conditions.
Resistor A device that converts electrical energy to thermal energy according to Ohm's Law.
Shunt A resistive device employed to divert most of the current in an electric circuit.
SIP Single-in-line package resistor network.
SMD Surface mount devices. Chips and chip arrays are examples.
Solderability Property of the termination to accept new solder in a soldering process.
Ability of a resistor to maintain its initial resistance value of extended periods of time when subjected to any combination of
electrical stresses and environmental conditions.
Temperature rise Thermal resistance that impedes the dissipation of heat from the resistor.
Resistor whose resistance element consists of a ruthenium oxide (also called cermet) screen printed onto a ceramic
substrate and fired at a high temperature.
Variable resistors Resistors whose value can be adjusted (trimmed) by the user, typically by means of a dial.
A resistor has a voltage coefficient if measurements of resistance with different voltages yield different results. The voltage
coefficient is the quotient of the relative difference in resistance and the difference of measuring voltage.
Resistor whose resistance element consists of a wire (nickel-chromium, copper-nickel, or gold-platinum) wound around a
bobbin or core.
Zero-ohm resistors Jumpers that are manufactured into resistor bodies for ease of insertion by the user.