XBee® Wi-Fi RF Module Guide - S6B Datasheet by Digi

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DIGI.’
XBee® Wi-Fi RF Module
S6B
User Guide
Revision history—90002180
Revision Date Description
P May
2017
Added information on the Associate LED. Revised the manual. Changed Device
Cloud to Remote Manager. Updated frame 0x20 Transmit options bit
description.
R June
2017
Modified regulatory and certification information as required by RED (Radio
Equipment Directive).
S March
2019
Re-organized the AT commands to match the order in XCTU. Noted that PKis
the wi-fi password. Updated the AP,MK,and GW descriptions.
T June
2019
Added FCC publication 996369 related information.
U August
2019
Removed Brazilian certification information.
Trademarks and copyright
Digi, Digi International, and the Digi logo are trademarks or registered trademarks in the United
States and other countries worldwide. All other trademarks mentioned in this document are the
property of their respective owners.
© 2019 Digi International Inc. All rights reserved.
Disclaimers
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a
commitment on the part of Digi International. Digi provides this document as is,” without warranty of
any kind, expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of fitness or
merchantability for a particular purpose. Digi may make improvements and/or changes in this manual
or in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this manual at any time.
Warranty
To view product warranty information, go to the following website:
www.digi.com/howtobuy/terms
Customer support
Gather support information: Before contacting Digi technical support for help, gather the following
information:
Product name and model
Product serial number (s)
Firmware version
Operating system/browser (if applicable)
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 2
Logs (from time of reported issue)
Trace (if possible)
Description of issue
Steps to reproduce
Contact Digi technical support: Digi offers multiple technical support plans and service packages.
Contact us at +1 952.912.3444 or visit us at www.digi.com/support.
Feedback
To provide feedback on this document, email your comments to
techcomm@digi.com
Include the document title and part number (XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide, 90002180 U) in the
subject line of your email.
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 3
Contents
Applicable firmware and hardware 12
Technical specifications
General specifications 14
RF characteristics 14
RF data rates 14
Receiver sensitivity 15
RF transmit power - typical 16
Error vector magnitude (EVM) maximum output power - typical 17
Electrical specifications 18
Serial communication specifications 19
UART pin assignments 20
SPI pin assignments 20
GPIO specifications 20
Regulatory conformity summary 21
Hardware
Mechanical drawings 23
Through-hole device 23
Surface-mount device 24
Pin signals 24
Design notes 26
Power supply 26
Pin connection recommendations 27
Board layout 27
Antenna performance 27
Design notes for RF pad devices 30
Mounting considerations 32
Operation
Serial interface 34
UART data flow 34
Serial data 34
SPI communications 35
Select the SPI port 36
Serial buffers 36
Serial receive buffer 37
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 4
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 5
Serial transmit buffer 37
UART flow control 37
CTS flow control 37
RTS flow control 37
The Commissioning Button 38
Connection indicators 39
The Associate LED 39
TCP connection indicator 39
Remote Manager connection indicator 40
Perform a serial firmware update 40
Modes
Serial modes 42
Transparent operating mode 42
API operating mode 42
Command mode 45
Modes of operation 47
Idle mode 47
Transmit mode 47
Receive mode 48
Configuration mode 48
Sleep mode 49
Sleep modes 49
Soft AP mode 49
Enable Soft AP mode 50
Station (STA) connection in Soft AP Provisioning mode 50
Use the webpage to configure a connected device 50
Station (STA) connection in Soft AP Pass Through mode 51
Sleep modes
About sleep modes 53
Use the UARTSleep mode 53
Use SPI Sleep mode 53
AP Associated Sleep mode 54
Pin Sleep mode 54
Cyclic Sleep mode 54
Deep Sleep (Non-Associated Sleep) mode 54
Pin Sleep mode 55
Cyclic Sleep mode 55
Use sleep modes to sample data 55
802.11 bgn networks
Infrastructure networks 57
Infrastructure Wireless Network 57
Ad Hoc networks 57
Set Ad Hoc creator parameters 57
Set Ad Hoc joiner parameters 58
Network basics 58
802.11 standards 58
Encryption 59
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 6
Authentication 59
Open authentication 59
Shared Key 59
Channels 59
IP services
XBee Application Service 62
Local host access 62
Network client access 63
Serial Communication Service 68
Transparent mode 68
UDP 68
TCP 69
API mode 69
UDP mode 69
TCP mode 69
I/O support
Analog and digital I/O lines 72
Through-hole device 72
Surface-mount device 72
Configure I/O functions 73
I/O sampling 74
Queried sampling 75
Periodic I/O sampling 75
Change detection sampling 76
Example 76
RSSI PWM 76
Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS)
Enable WPS 79
Use WPS 79
Pre-shared key (PSK) mode security 79
General Purpose Flash Memory
General Purpose Flash Memory 81
Work with flash memory 81
Access General Purpose Flash Memory 81
General Purpose Flash Memory commands 82
PLATFORM_INFO_REQUEST (0x00) 83
PLATFORM_INFO (0x80) 83
ERASE (0x01) 83
ERASE_RESPONSE (0x81) 84
WRITE (0x02) and ERASE_THEN_WRITE (0x03) 85
WRITE _RESPONSE (0x82) and ERASE_THEN_WRITE_RESPONSE (0x83) 85
READ (0x04) 86
READ_RESPONSE (0x84) 86
FIRMWARE_VERIFY (0x05) and FIRMWARE_VERIFY_AND_INSTALL(0x06) 87
FIRMWARE_VERIFY_RESPONSE (0x85) 88
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 7
FIRMWARE_VERIFY _AND_INSTALL_RESPONSE (0x86) 88
Update the firmware over-the-air 89
Over-the-air firmware updates 90
Distribute the new application 90
Verify the new application 91
Install the application 91
Get started with Digi Remote Manager
Use XCTU to enable Remote Manager 92
Configure the device 92
Output control 93
IO command bits 94
Send I/O samples to Remote Manager 95
View I/O samples in Remote Manager 95
Update the firmware from Remote Manager 95
Send data requests 96
Enable messages to the host 96
About the device request and frame ID 96
Populate and send a Device Request frame (0xB9) 96
Transparent mode data 97
Send data to Remote Manager 98
AT command settings to put serial data in Remote Manager 98
Send files 98
Send binary data points 99
Receive data from Remote Manager 99
Operate in API mode
API mode overview 101
Use the AP command to set the operation mode 101
API frame format 101
API operation (AP parameter = 1) 101
API operation with escaped characters (AP parameter = 2) 102
API serial exchanges 105
AT command frames 105
Transmit and receive RF data 105
Remote AT commands 106
API frames
TX (Transmit) Request: 64-bit - 0x00 108
Remote AT Command Request - 0x07 110
AT Command Frame - 0x08 112
Transmit Packet - 0x10 113
Explicit Transmit Packet - 0x11 115
Remote AT Command - 0x17 118
Transmit (TX) Request: IPv4 - 0x20 120
Send Data Request - 0x28 122
Device Response - 0x2A 124
Rx (Receive) Packet: 64-bit - 0x80 125
Remote Command Response - 0x87 127
AT Command Response frame - 0x88 129
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 8
Transmission Status frame - 0x89 130
Modem Status frame - 0x8A 132
TX Status frame - 0x8B 133
I/O Data Sample RX Indicator frame - 0x8F 135
Receive Packet frame 0x90 137
Explicit Receive Packet frame - 0x91 139
Remote AT Command Response frame - 0x97 141
RX (Receive) Packet: IPv4 - 0xB0 143
Send Data Response frame - 0xB8 145
Device Request frame - 0xB9 146
Device Response Status frame - 0xBA 147
Frame Error - 0xFE 148
AT commands
MAC/PHY commands 150
AI (Association Indication) 150
DI (Remote Manager Indicator) 150
CH (Channel) 151
LM (Link Margin) 151
PL (Power Level) 151
Network commands 152
AH (Network Type) 152
CE (Infrastructure Mode) 152
ID (SSID) 152
EE (Encryption Enable) 153
PK command 153
IP (IP Protocol) 153
MA (IP Addressing Mode) 154
TM (Timeout) 154
TS (TCP Server Socket Timeout) 154
DO command 154
EQ (Remote Manager FQDN) 155
Addressing commands 155
SH command 155
SL command 156
NS (DNS Address) 156
LA (Lookup IP Address of FQDN) 156
DL command 156
NI (Node Identifier) 156
KP (Device Description) 157
KC (Contact Information) 157
KL (Device Location) 157
C0 (Serial Communication Service Port) 157
DE (Destination port) 158
GW command 158
MK command 158
MY command 159
PG (Ping an IP Address) 159
DD command 159
NP (Maximum RF Payload Bytes) 159
Serial interfacing commands 160
BD (Baud Rate) 160
NB (Serial Parity) 160
SB (Stop Bits) 161
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 9
RO command 161
FT (Flow Control Threshold) 161
API Enable 162
AO command 162
I/O settings commands 162
D0 (DIO0/AD0/ CB Configuration) 162
D1 (DIO1/AD1 Configuration) 163
D2 (DIO2/AD2 Configuration) 163
D3 (DIO3/AD3 Configuration) 164
D4 (DIO4/AD4 Configuration) 164
D5 (DIO5 Configuration) 165
D6 (DIO6 Configuration) 165
D7 (DIO7 Configuration) 166
D8 (DIO8 Configuration) 166
D9 (DIO9 Configuration) 167
P0 (DIO10 Configuration) 167
P1 (DIO11 Configuration) 168
P2 (DIO12 Configuration) 168
P3 (DOUT) 169
P4 DIN 169
P5 (DIO15 Configuration) 169
P6 (DIO16 Configuration) 170
P7 (DIO17 Configuration) 170
P8 (DIO18 Configuration) 171
P9 (DIO19 Configuration) 171
PD (Pull Direction) 171
PR (Pull-up Resistor) 172
DS (Drive Strength) 173
M0 (PWM0 Duty Cycle) 173
M1 (PWM1 Duty Cycle) 173
LT command 173
RP(RSSI PWM Timer) 174
IS command 174
I/O sampling commands 174
AV (Analog Voltage Reference) 174
IC (Digital Change Detection) 175
IF (Sample from Sleep Rate) 175
IR (I/O Sample Rate) 175
TP command 175
%V (Supply Voltage) 176
Output Control 176
OM (Output Mask) 176
T0 (Set time to hold DIO0) 176
T1 (Set time to hold DIO1) 176
T2 (Set time to hold DIO2) 177
T3 (Set time to hold DIO3) 177
T4 (Set time to hold DIO4) 177
T5 (Set time to hold DIO5) 177
T6 (Set time to hold DIO6) 178
T7 (Set time to hold DIO7) 178
T8 (Set time to hold DIO8) 178
T9 (Set time to hold DIO9) 178
Q0 (Set time to hold DIO10) 178
Q1 (Set time to hold DIO11) 179
Q2 (Set time to hold DIO12) 179
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 10
Q3 (Set time to hold DIO13) 179
Q4 (Set time to hold DIO14) 179
Q5 (Set time to hold DIO15) 179
Q6 (Set time to hold DIO16) 180
Q7 (Set time to hold DIO17) 180
Q8 (Set time to hold DIO18) 180
Q9 (Set time to hold DIO19) 181
IO command 181
Sleep commands 181
SA command 181
SM (Sleep Mode) 181
SO command 182
SP (Sleep Period) 182
ST (Wake Time) 182
WH (Wake Host) 183
Command mode options 183
CC (Command Mode Character) 183
CT command 183
GT command 183
CN command 184
Diagnostics interfacing 184
VR command 184
HV command 184
HS (Hardware Series) 185
AS (Active scan for network environment data) 185
CK (Configuration Code) 185
Execution commands 186
AC (Apply Changes) 186
WR command 186
RE command 186
FR (Software Reset) 186
NR (Network Reset) 187
CB command 187
Regulatory information
United States (FCC) 189
OEM labeling requirements 189
FCC notices 189
FCC-approved antennas (2.4 GHz) 191
RF exposure 197
FCC publication 996369 related information 197
Europe (CE) 199
Maximum power and frequency specifications 199
OEM labeling requirements 199
Declarations of conformity 200
Approved antennas 200
Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (ISED) 201
Labeling requirements 201
Transmitters with detachable antennas 201
Detachable antenna 201
Australia (RCM)/New Zealand (R-NZ) 202
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 11
Manufacturing information
Recommended solder reflow cycle 204
Recommended footprint 204
Mount the devices 206
Flux and cleaning 207
Rework 208
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide
The XBee Wi-Fi RF Module provides wireless connectivity to end-point devices in 802.11 bgn networks.
Using the 802.11 feature set, these devices are interoperable with other 802.11 bgn devices, including
devices from other vendors. With XBee Wi-Fi RF Module, you can have an 802.11 bgn network up and
running in a matter of minutes.
The XBee Wi-Fi RF Modules are compatible with other devices that use 802.11 bgn technology. These
include Digi external 802.11x devices like the ConnectPort products and the Digi Connect Wi-SP, as
well as embedded products like the ConnectCore series and Digi Connect series of products.
Applicable firmware and hardware
This manual supports the following firmware:
nx202x
It supports the following hardware:
nXB2B-WFxx-xxx
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 12
Technical specifications
General specifications 14
RF characteristics 14
RF data rates 14
Receiver sensitivity 15
RF transmit power - typical 16
Error vector magnitude (EVM) maximum output power - typical 17
Electrical specifications 18
Serial communication specifications 19
GPIO specifications 20
Regulatory conformity summary 21
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 13
Technical specifications General specifications
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 14
General specifications
The following table describes the general specifications for the devices.
Specification XBee Wi-Fi through-hole
XBee Wi-Fi surface-
mount
Dimensions 2.438 cm x 2.761 cm (0.960 in x 1.087 in) 2.200 x 3.378 cm (0.866 x
1.330 in)
Operatingtemperature -30 to 85 °C
Antenna options PCB antenna, U.FL connector, RPSMA
connector, or integrated wire
PCB antenna, U.FL
connector, or RF pad
RF characteristics
The following table provides the RF characteristics for the device.
Specification XBee Wi-Fi through-hole XBee Wi-Fi surface-mount
Frequency Industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) 2.4 - 2.5 GHz
Number of channels 13
Adjustable power Yes
Wi-Fi standards 802.11 b, g, and n
Transmit power output
(average)
Up to +16 dBm
+13 dBm for Europe/Australia and New Zealand; see RF transmit
power - typical
FCC/IC test transmit power
range (peak)
802.11b 2.73 to 26.81
dBm
802.11b 2.08 to 26.13
dBm
802.11g 7.87 to 28.52
dBm
802.11g 7.15 to 27.72
dBm
802.11n (800
ns GI)
8.03 to 28.75
dBm
802.11n (800
ns GI)
7.02 to 27.89
dBm
802.11n (400
ns GI)
8.04 to 28.64
dBm
802.11n (400
ns GI)
7.33 to 28.20
dBm
RF data rates 1 Mb/s to 72.22 Mb/s; see RF data rates
Serial data interface UART up to 1 Mb/s, SPI up to 6 MHz
Serial data throughput UART up to 320 Kb/s, SPI up to 1 Mb/s
Receiver sensitivity
(25 °C, <10% PER)
-93 to -71 dBm; see Receiver sensitivity
RF data rates
The following table provides the RF data rates for the device.
Technical specifications Receiver sensitivity
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 15
Standard Data rates (Mb/s)
802.11b 1, 2, 5.5, 11
802.11g 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54
Standard MCSindex
Data rates (Mb/s)
800 ns guard interval 400 ns guard interval
802.11n 0 6.5 7.22
1 13 14.44
2 19.5 21.67
3 26 28.89
4 39 43.33
5 52 57.78
6 58.5 65
7 65 72.22
Receiver sensitivity
The following table lists the available data rates along with the corresponding receiver sensitivity.
Receiver sensitivity (25 °C, < 10% PER)
Standard Data rate Sensitivity (dBm)
802.11b 1 Mb/s -93
2 Mb/s -91
5.5 Mb/s -90
11 Mb/s -87
802.11g 6 Mb/s -91
9 Mb/s -89
12 Mb/s -88
18 Mb/s -86
24 Mb/s -83
36 Mb/s -80
48 Mb/s -76
54 Mb/s -74
Technical specifications RF transmit power - typical
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 16
Receiver sensitivity (25 °C, < 10% PER)
Standard Data rate Sensitivity (dBm)
802.11n MCS 0 6.5/7.22 Mb/s -91
MCS 1 13/14.44 Mb/s -88
MCS 2 19.5/21.67 Mb/s -85
MCS 3 26/28.89 Mb/s -82
MCS 4 39/43.33 Mb/s -78
MCS 5 52/57.78 Mb/s -74
MCS 6 58.5/65 Mb/s -73
MCS 7 65/72.22 Mb/s -71
RF transmit power - typical
The following table provides the average RF transmit power for the device.
Standard Data rate
Power (dBm)
North
America/Japan
Europe/Australia and New
Zealand
802.11b 1 Mb/s 16 13
2 Mb/s
5.5 Mb/s
11 Mb/s
802.11g 6 Mb/s 16 13
9 Mb/s
12 Mb/s
18 Mb/s
24 Mb/s
36 Mb/s
48 Mb/s 14 13
54 Mb/s
Technical specifications Error vector magnitude (EVM) maximum output power - typical
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 17
Standard Data rate
Power (dBm)
North
America/Japan
Europe/Australia and New
Zealand
802.11n MCS 0 6.5/7.22 Mb/s 15 13
MCS 1 13/14.44 Mb/s
MCS 2 19.5/21.67 Mb/s
MCS 3 26/28.89 Mb/s
MCS 4 39/43.33 Mb/s
MCS 5 52/57.78 Mb/s
MCS 6 58.5/65 Mb/s 14 13
MCS 7 65/72.22 Mb/s 8.5 8.5
Error vector magnitude (EVM) maximum output power - typical
The following table shows the EVM at 25 °C, maximum output power.
Standard Data rate EVM (dB)
802.11b 1 Mb/s -40
2 Mb/s -40
5.5 Mb/s -38
11 Mb/s -36
802.11g 6 Mb/s -18
9 Mb/s -20
12 Mb/s -21
18 Mb/s -22
24 Mb/s -22
36 Mb/s -23
48 Mb/s -25
54 Mb/s -26
Technical specifications Electrical specifications
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 18
Standard Data rate EVM (dB)
802.11n MCS 0 6.5/7.22 Mb/s -19
MCS 1 13/14.44 Mb/s -21
MCS 2 19.5/21.67 Mb/s -22
MCS 3 26/28.89 Mb/s -24
MCS 4 39/43.33 Mb/s -25
MCS 5 52/57.78 Mb/s -25
MCS 6 58.5/65 Mb/s -26
MCS 7 65/72.22 Mb/s -28
Electrical specifications
The following table provides the electrical specifications for the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module.
Specification XBee Wi-Fi
Supply voltage 3.14 - 3.46 VDC
Technical specifications Serial communication specifications
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 19
Specification XBee Wi-Fi
Operating current (transmit,
maximum output power)
802.11b 1 Mb/s 309mA
2 Mb/s
5.5 Mb/s
11 Mb/s
802.11g 6 Mb/s 271 mA
9 Mb/s
12 Mb/s
18 Mb/s
24 Mb/s
36 Mb/s
48 Mb/s 225 mA
54 Mb/s
802.11n MCS 0 6.5/7.22 Mb/s 260 mA
MCS 1 13/14.44 Mb/s
MCS219.5/21.67Mb/s
MCS 3 26/28.89 Mb/s
MCS 4 39/43.33 Mb/s
MCS 5 52/57.78 Mb/s
MCS658.5/65Mb/s 217 mA
MCS765/72.22Mb/s 184 mA
Operating current (receive) 100 mA
Deep sleep current 6 µA @ 25 °C
Associated sleep current 2 mA asleep, 100 mA awake. For more information, see AP
Associated Sleep mode.
Serial communication specifications
The XBee Wi-Fi RF Module supports both Universal Asynchronous Receiver / Transmitter (UART) and
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)serial connections.
Technical specifications GPIO specifications
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 20
UART pin assignments
Specifications Device pin number
UART pins XBee (surface-mount) XBee (through-hole)
DIO13/DOUT 3 2
DIO14/DIN 4 3
DIO7/CTS 25 12
DIO6/RTS 29 16
For more information on UART operation, see UART data flow.
SPI pin assignments
Specifications Device pin number
SPI pins XBee (surface-mount) XBee (through-hole)
DIO2/SPI_SCLK 14 18
DIO3/SPI_SSEL 15 17
DIO4/SPI_MOSI 16 11
DIO12/SPI_MISO 17 4
DIO1/SPI_ATTN 12 19
For more information on SPI operation, see SPI communications.
GPIO specifications
The XBee Wi-Fi RF Modules have 14 (through-hole version) and 20 (surface-mount version) General
Purpose Input Output (GPIO)ports available. The exact list depends on the device configuration, as
some GPIO pads are used for purposes such as serial communication.
See I/O sampling for more information on configuring and using GPIO ports. The following table
provides the electrical specifications for the GPIO pads.
Parameter Condition Min Max Units
Input low voltage 0.3VDD V
Input high voltage 0.7VDD V
Output high voltage relative to VDD Sourcing 2 mA, VDD = 3.3 V 85 %
Output low voltage relative to VDD Sinking 2 mA, VDD = 3.3 V 15 %
Technical specifications Regulatory conformity summary
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 21
Parameter Condition Min Max Units
Output fall time 2 mA drive strength and load
capacitance CL= 350 - 600 pF.
20+0.1CL 250 ns
I/O pin hysteresis
(VIOTHR+ - VIOTHR-)
VDD = 3.14 to 3.46 V 0.1 VDD V
Pulse width of pulses to be removed
by the glitch suppression filter
10 50 ns
Regulatory conformity summary
This table describes the agency approvals for the devices.
Country
XBee Wi-Fi through-
hole
XBee Wi-Fi surface-
mount
United States (FCC Part 15.247) FCC ID: MCQ-XBS6B FCC ID: MCQ-S6BSM
Innovation, Science and Economic Development
Canada (ISED)
IC: 1846A-XBS6B IC: 1846A-S6BSM
Europe (CE) Yes Yes
Australia RCM RCM
New Zealand R-NZ R-NZ
Japan R210-101056 R210-101057
For details about FCC Approval (USA), see Regulatory information.
Hardware
Mechanical drawings 23
Pin signals 24
Design notes 26
Design notes for RF pad devices 30
Mounting considerations 32
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 22
{0375 ) mum j 3 Mm X [en Uflflflfl flflflflfl mu ‘ QfiQ PCB antenna am
Hardware Mechanical drawings
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 23
Mechanical drawings
The following figures show the mechanical drawings for the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module. The drawings do
not show antenna options. All dimensions are in inches.
Through-hole device
J 0,11 ) ( .0305 (0.68 ) 0.041} 41.005 ))(7 "5 <7 j="" pm="" :7="" diiid="" vwl="" ('nominaljls“="" )="" 0002="" 1.33="" 4.02="" (‘maximum="" .140"="" )="" [n.os="" )="" (="" k="" mm="" '="" indudeslabel="" $0.111="" mm="" 7001="" fi="" e="" 1:15="" top="" view="" side="" mew="" bottom="" mew="">
Hardware Pin signals
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 24
Surface-mount device
Pin signals
The following table describes the pin assignments for the through-hole device. A horizontal line above
the signal name indicates low-asserted signals.
Pin
# Name Direction
Default
state Description
1 VCC - - Power supply
2 DIO13/DOUT Both Output UART data out
3DIO14/DIN/CONFIG Both Input UART data In
4 DIO12/SPI_MISO Both Disabled GPIO/ SPI slave out
5RESET Input Input Device reset
6 DIO10/RSSI
PWM/PWM0
Both Output RX signal strength indicator/GPIO
7 DIO11/PWM1 Both Disabled GPIO
8 Reserved - - Do not connect
9DIO8/DTR/SLEEP_RQ Both Input Pin sleep control line /GPIO
10 GND - - Ground
11 DIO4/SPI_MOSI Both Disabled GPIO/SPI slave In
Hardware Pin signals
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 25
Pin
# Name Direction
Default
state Description
12 DIO7/CTS Both Output Clear-to-send flow control/GPIO
13 DIO9/ON_SLEEP Both Output Device status indicator/GPIO
14 VREF - - Not connected
15 DIO5/ASSOCIATE Both Output Associate indicator/GPIO
16 DIO6/RTS Both Input Request-to-send flow control/GPIO
17 DIO3/AD3 /SPI_SSEL Both Disabled Analog input/GPIO/SPI slave select
18 DIO2/AD2 /SPI_CLK Both Disabled Analog input/GPIO/SPI clock
19 DIO1/AD1 /SPI_ATTN Both Disabled Analog input/GPIO/SPI attention
20 DIO0/AD0/CB Both Disabled Analog Input/Commissioning
Button/GPIO
The following table describes the pin assignments for the surface-mount device. A horizontal line
above the signal name indicates low-asserted signals.
Pin
# Name Direction
Default
state Description
1 GND - - Ground
2 VCC - - Power supply
3 DIO13/DOUT Both Output UART data out
4DIO14/DIN/CONFIG Both Input UART data in
5 DIO12 Both Disabled GPIO
6RESET Input Input Device reset
7 DIO10/ RSSI
PWM/PWM0
Both Output RX signal strength indicator/GPIO
8 DIO11/PWM1 Both Disabled GPIO
9 Reserved - - Do not connect
10 DIO8/DTR/SLEEP_RQ Both Input GPIO
11 GND - - Ground
12 DIO19/SPI_ATTN Both Output GPIO/SPI attention
13 GND - - Ground
14 DIO18/SPI_CLK Both Input GPIO/SPI clock
15 DIO17/SPI_SSEL Both Input GPIO/SPI slave select
Hardware Design notes
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 26
Pin
# Name Direction
Default
state Description
16 DIO16/SPI_SI Both Input GPIO/SPI slave in
17 DIO15/SPI_SO Both Output GPIO/SPI slave out
18 Reserved - - Do not connect
19 Reserved - - Do not connect
20 Reserved - - Do not connect
21 Reserved - - Do not connect
22 GND - - Ground
23 Reserved - - Do not connect
24 DIO4 Both Disabled GPIO
25 DIO7/CTS Both Output Clear-to-send flow control/ GPIO
26 DIO9/ON_SLEEP Both Output Device status indicator/GPIO
27 VREF - - Not connected
28 DIO5/ASSOC Both Output Associate indicator/GPIO
29 DIO6/RTS Both Input Request-to-send flow control/ GPIO
30 DIO3/AD3 Both Disabled Analog input/GPIO
31 DIO2/AD2 Both Disabled Analog input/GPIO
32 DIO1/AD1 Both Disabled Analog input/GPIO
33 DIO0/AD0/CB Both Disabled Analog input/Commissioning
Button/GPIO
34 Reserved - - Do not connect
35 GND - - Ground
36 RF Both - RF I/O for RF pad variant
37 Reserved - - Do not connect
Design notes
The XBee devices do not specifically require any external circuitry specific connections for proper
operation. However, there are some general design guidelines that we recommend for help in
troubleshooting and building a robust design.
Power supply
A poor power supply can lead to poor device performance, especially if you do not keep the supply
voltage within tolerance or if it is excessively noisy. To help reduce noise, place a 1.0 μF and 8.2 pF
capacitor as near as possible to pin 1 on the PCB. If you are using a switching regulator for the power
M_OS nd SPI conveni
Hardware Design notes
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 27
supply, switch the frequencies above 500 kHz. Limit the power supply ripple to a maximum 50 mV
peak to peak.
Pin connection recommendations
The only required pin connections are VCC, GND, and either DOUT and DIN or SPI_CLK, SPI_SSEL, SPI_
MOSI, and SPI MISO. To support serial firmware updates, you should connect VCC, GND, DOUT, DIN,
RTS, and DTR.
Leave all unused pins disconnected. Use the PRcommand to pull all of the inputs on the device high
using 40 k internal pull-up resistors. You do not need a specific treatment for unused outputs.
For applications that need to ensure the lowest sleep current, never leave inputs floating. Use internal
or external pull-up or pull-down resistors, or set the unused I/O lines to outputs. You can achieve the
deep sleep (pin sleep) current specification using a standard XBee Interface Board with the XBee Wi-Fi
RF Module's pull-up and pull-down resistors configured as default.
You can connect other pins to external circuitry for convenience of operation. For example, the
Associate signal (TH pin 15/SMT pin 28) and the ON_SLEEP signal (TH pin 13/SMT pin 26) will change
level or behavior based on the state of the device.
Board layout
When designing the host PCB, account for the device dimensions shown in Mechanical drawings. See
Manufacturing information for the recommended footprints and required keepout areas. Use good
design practices when connecting power and ground, making those traces wide enough to
comfortably support the maximum currents or using planes if possible.
Antenna performance
Antenna location is important for optimal performance. The following suggestions help you achieve
optimal antenna performance. Point the antenna up vertically (upright). Antennas radiate and receive
the best signal perpendicular to the direction they point, so a vertical antenna's omnidirectional
radiation pattern is strongest across the horizon.
Position the antennas away from metal objects whenever possible. Metal objects between the
transmitter and receiver can block the radiation path or reduce the transmission distance. Objects
that are often overlooked include:
nmetal poles
nmetal studs
nstructure beams
nconcrete, which is usually reinforced with metal rods
If you place the device inside a metal enclosure, use an external antenna. Common objects that have
metal enclosures include:
nvehicles
nelevators
nventilation ducts
nrefrigerators
nmicrowave ovens
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Hardware Design notes
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 28
nbatteries
ntall electrolytic capacitors
Do not place XBee devices with the chip or integrated PCB antenna inside a metal enclosure.
Do not place any ground planes or metal objects above or below the antenna.
For the best results, mount the device at the edge of the host PCB. Ensure that the ground, power,
and signal planes are vacant immediately below the antenna section.
Keepout area
The following drawings show important recommendations for designing with the PCB antenna device
using the through-hole and surface-mount devices. Do not mount the surface-mount PCB antenna
device on the RF Pad footprint because that footprint requires a ground plane within the keepout
area.
Through-hole keepout
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Hardware Design notes
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 29
Notes
1. We recommend non-metal enclosures. For metal enclosures, use an external antenna.
2. Keep metal chassis or mounting structures in the keepout area at least 2.54 cm (1 in) from the
antenna.
3. Maximize the distance between the antenna and metal objects that might be mounted in the
keepout area.
4. These keepout area guidelines do not apply for wire whip antennas or external RFconnectors.
Wire whip antennas radiate best over the center of a ground plane.
Surface-mount keepout
Notes
1. We recommend non-metal enclosures. For metal enclosures, use an external antenna.
2. Keep metal chassis or mounting structures in the keepout area at least 2.54 cm (1 in) from the
antenna.
3. Maximize the distance between the antenna and metal objects that might be mounted in the
keepout area.
Hardware Design notes for RF pad devices
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 30
4. These keepout area guidelines do not apply for wire whip antennas or external RFconnectors.
Wire whip antennas radiate best over the center of a ground plane.
Design notes for RF pad devices
The RF pad is a soldered antenna connection. The RF signal travels from pin 33 the RF pad connection
(pad 33 on micro modules and pad 36 on surface-mount modules) on the device to the antenna
through an RF trace transmission line on the PCB. Any additional components between the device and
antenna violates modular certification. The controlled impedance for the RF trace is 50 Ω.
We recommend using a microstrip trace, although you can also use a coplanar waveguide if you need
more isolation. A microstrip generally requires less area on the PCB than a coplanar waveguide. We do
not recommend using a stripline because sending the signal to different PCB layers can introduce
matching and performance problems.
Following good design practices is essential when implementing the RF trace on a PCB. Consider the
following points:
nMinimize the length of the trace by placing the RPSMA jack close to the device.
nConnect all of the grounds on the jack and the device to the ground planes directly or through
closely placed vias.
nSpace any ground fill on the top layer at least twice the distance d(in this case, at least 0.028")
from the microstrip to minimize their interaction.
Additional considerations:
nThe top two layers of the PCB have a controlled thickness dielectric material in between.
nThe second layer has a ground plane which runs underneath the entire RF pad area. This
ground plane is a distance d, the thickness of the dielectric, below the top layer.
nThe top layer has an RF trace running from pin 33 of the device to the RF pin of the RPSMA
connector.
nThe RF trace width determines the impedance of the transmission line with relation to the
ground plane. Many online tools can estimate this value, although you should consult the PCB
manufacturer for the exact width.
Implementing these design suggestions helps ensure that the RF pad device performs to its
specifications.
The following figures show a layout example of a host PCB that connects an RF pad device to a right
angle, through-hole RPSMA jack.
Hardware Design notes for RF pad devices
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 31
Number Description
1Maintain a distance of at least 2 d between microstrip and ground fill.
2 Device pin 33.
2 RF pad pin.
3 50 microstrip trace.
4 RF connection of RPSMA jack.
The width in this example is approximately 0.025 in for a 50 trace, assuming d = 0.014 in, and that
the dielectric has a relative permittivity of 4.4. This trace width is a good fit with the device footprint's
0.335" pad width.
Note We do not recommend using a trace wider than the pad width, and using a very narrow trace
(under 0.010") can cause unwanted RF loss.
The following illustration shows PCB layer 2 of an example RF layout.
Hardware Mounting considerations
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 32
Number Description
1Use multiple vias to help eliminate ground variations.
2 Put a solid ground plane under RF trace to achieve the desired impedance.
Mounting considerations
We design the through-hole device to mount into a receptacle so that you do not have to solder the
device when you mount it to a board. The interface boards provided in the XBee Wi-Fi Development Kit
has two ten-pin receptacles for connecting the device.
Century Interconnect manufactures the receptacles used on Digi development boards. Several other
manufacturers provide comparable mounting solutions; however, Digi currently uses the following
receptacles:
nThrough-hole single-row receptacles: Samtec part number: MMS-110-01-L-SV (or equivalent)
nThrough-hole single-row receptacles: Mill-Max part number: 831-43-0101-10-001000
nSurface-mount double-row receptacles: Century Interconnect part number: CPRMSL20-D-0-1
(or equivalent)
nSurface-mount single-row receptacles: Samtec part number: SMM-110-02-SM-S
Note We recommend that you print an outline of the device on the board to indicate the
correct orientation for mounting the device.
Operation
Serial interface 34
UART data flow 34
Serial data 34
SPI communications 35
Serial buffers 36
UART flow control 37
The Commissioning Button 38
Connection indicators 39
Perform a serial firmware update 40
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 33
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Operation Serial interface
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 34
Serial interface
The XBee Wi-Fi RF Module interfaces to a host device through a serial port. The device's serial port can
communicate:
nThrough a logic and voltage compatible universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART).
nThrough a level translator to any serial device, for example, through an RS-232 or USB
interface board.
nThrough a serial peripheral interface (SPI) port.
UART data flow
Devices that have a UART interface connect directly to the pins of the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module as shown
in the following figure. The figure shows system data flow in a UART-interfaced environment. Low-
asserted signals have a horizontal line over the signal name.
Serial data
A device sends data to the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module's UART through TH pin 3/SMT pin 4 DIN as an
asynchronous serial signal. When the device is not transmitting data, the signals should idle high.
For serial communication to occur, you must configure the UART of both devices (the microcontroller
and the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module) with compatible settings for the baud rate, parity, start bits, stop bits,
and data bits.
Each data byte consists of a start bit (low), 8 data bits (least significant bit first) and a stop bit (high).
The following diagram illustrates the serial bit pattern of data passing through the device. The
diagram shows UART data packet 0x1F (decimal number 31) as transmitted through the device.
You can configure the UART baud rate, parity, and stop bits settings on the device with the BD,NB,
and SB commands respectively. For more information, see Serial interfacing commands.
Frame Format nSSEL / scmn W MOSI». X Rxm X RX[6] X RX[51X RX[4] X RXI31X RXIZI X Rxm X RXIOIX MISOM TX[T] X we] X m5] X TX[4] X ma] X TX[2] X TX[1] X TXIOI X )—
Operation SPI communications
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 35
In the rare case that a device has been configured with the UART disabled, you can recover the device
to UART operation by holding DIN low at reset time. DIN forces a default configuration on the UART at
9600 baud and it brings the device up in Command mode on the UART port. You can then send the
appropriate commands to the device to configure it for UART operation. If those parameters are
written, the device comes up with the UART enabled on the next reset.
SPI communications
The XBee Wi-Fi RF Module supports SPI communications in slave mode. Slave mode receives the clock
signal and data from the master and returns data to the master. The following table shows the
signals that the SPI port uses on the device.
Signal Function
SPI_MOSI
(MasterOut,SlaveIn)
Inputs serial data from the master
SPI_MISO(Master
In,Slave Out)
Outputs serial data to the master
SPI_SCLK
(SerialClock)
Clocks data transfers on MOSI and MISO
SPI_SSEL
(SlaveSelect)
Enables serial communication with the slave
SPI_ATTN (Attention) Alerts the master that slave has data queued to send. The XBee Wi-Fi RF
Module asserts this pin as soon as data is available to send to the SPI
master and it remains asserted until the SPI master has clocked out all
available data.
In this mode:
nData is most significant bit (MSB) first; bit 7 is the first bit of a byte sent over the interface.
nFrame Format mode 0 is used. This means CPOL= 0 (idle clock is low) and CPHA = 0 (data is
sampled on the clock’s leading edge).
nThe SPI port only supports API Mode (AP =1).
The following diagram shows the frame format mode 0 for SPI communications.
SPI mode is chip to chip communication. We do not supply a SPI communication option on the device
development evaluation boards.
edtoe h-hole d DOUT uration
Operation Serial buffers
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 36
Select the SPI port
On the through-hole devices, you can force SPI mode by holding DOUT/DIO13 low while resetting the
device until SPI_ATTN asserts. This causes the device to disable the UART and go straight into SPI
communication mode. Once configuration is complete, the device queues a modem status frame to
the SPI port, which causes the SPI_ATTN line to assert. The host can use this to determine that the
SPI port is configured properly. This method forces the configuration to provide full SPI support for the
following parameters:
nD1 (This parameter will only be changed if it is at a default of zero when the method is
invoked.)
nD2
nD3
nD4
nP2
As long as the host does not issue a WR command, these configuration values revert to previous
values after a power-on reset. If the host issues a WR command while in SPI mode, these same
parameters are written to flash. After a reset, parameters that were forced and then written to flash
become the mode of operation.
If the UART is disabled and the SPI is enabled in the written configuration, then the device comes up in
SPI mode without forcing it by holding DOUT low. If both the UART and the SPI are enabled at the time
of reset, then output goes to the UART until the host sends the first input. If that first input comes on
the SPI port, then all subsequent output goes to the SPI port and the UART is disabled. If the first
input comes on the UART, then all subsequent output goes to the UART and the SPI is disabled.
Once you select a serial port (UART or SPI), all subsequent output goes to that port, even if you apply a
new configuration. The only way to switch the selected serial port is to reset the device. On surface-
mount devices, forcing DOUT low at the time of reset has no effect. To use SPI mode on the SMT
devices, assert the SPI_SSEL (TH pin 17/SMT pin 15) low after reset and before any UART data is input.
When the master asserts the slave select (SPI_SSEL) signal, SPI transmit data is driven to the output
pin SPI_MISO, and SPI data is received from the input pin SPI_MOSI. The SPI_SSEL pin has to be
asserted to enable the transmit serializer to drive data to the output signal SPI_MISO. A rising edge
on SPI_SSEL causes the SPI_MISO line to be tri-stated such that another slave device can drive it, if so
desired.
If the output buffer is empty, the SPI serializer transmits the last valid bit repeatedly, which may be
either high or low. Otherwise, the device formats all output in API mode 1 format, as described in
Operate in API mode. The attached host is expected to ignore all data that is not part of a formatted
API frame.
Serial buffers
The XBee Wi-Fi RF Module maintains internal buffers to collect serial and RF data that it receives. The
serial receive buffer collects incoming serial characters and holds them until the device can process
them. The serial transmit buffer collects the data it receives via the RF link until it transmits that data
out the UART or SPI port. The following figure shows the process of device buffers collecting received
serial data.
Sena‘ RF TX . DINovMOS\ p ”(we y ) Tvansmmer _ Buffer Bufler RFS ’t h _ w\ r. (TS —' Antenna *: /—r) m DOUI amuse Serm‘ RF RX . i mmn ‘ Buffer 4 Recewer 4 ms y awe: ould ove low co the host t how ma ult, F send M i
Operation UART flow control
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 37
Serial receive buffer
When serial data enters the device through the DIN pin (or the MOSI pin), it stores the data in the
serial receive buffer until the device can process it. Under certain conditions, the device may not be
able to process data in the serial receive buffer immediately. If large amounts of serial data are sent
to the device such that the serial receive buffer would overflow, then it discards new data. If the UART
is in use, you can avoid this by the host side honoring CTS flow control.
Serial transmit buffer
When the device receives RF data, it moves the data into the serial transmit buffer and sends it out
the UART or SPI port. If the serial transmit buffer becomes full and the system buffers are also full,
then it drops the entire RF data packet. Whenever the device receives data faster than it can process
and transmit the data out the serial port, there is a potential of dropping data, even in TCP mode.
UART flow control
You can use the RTS and CTS pins to provide RTS and/or CTS flow control. CTS flow control provides an
indication to the host to stop sending serial data to the device. RTS flow control allows the host to
signal the device to not send data in the serial transmit buffer out the UART. To enable RTS/CTS flow
control, use the D6 and D7 commands.
Note Serial port flow control is not possible when using the SPI port.
CTS flow control
The FT command allows you to specify how many bytes of data can be queued up in the serial
transmit buffer before the device asserts CTS low. The serial receive buffer can hold up the 2100
bytes, but FT cannot be set any larger than 2083 bytes, leaving 17 bytes that can be sent by the host
before the data is dropped.
By default, FT is 2035 (0x7F3), which allows the host to send 65 bytes to the device after the device
asserts CTS before the data is dropped. In either case, CTS is not re-asserted until the serial receive
buffer has FT-17 or less bytes in use.
RTS flow control
If you send D6 (DIO6 Configuration) to enable RTS flow control, the device does not send data in the
serial transmit buffer out the DOUT pin as long as RTS is de-asserted (set high). Do not de-assert RTS
charac XBee 200 150 m Push button J, Associate LED
Operation The Commissioning Button
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 38
for long periods of time or the serial transmit buffer will fill. If the device receives an RF data packet
and the serial transmit buffer does not have enough space for all of the data bytes, it discards the
entire RF data packet.
If the device sends data out the UART when RTS is de-asserted (set high) the device could send up to
four characters out the UART port after RTS is de-asserted. This means your application needs to de-
assert RTS by the time its receive capacity is within 4 bytes of full.
The Commissioning Button
The XBee Wi-Fi RF Module supports a set of commissioning and LED functions to help you deploy and
commission devices. These functions include the Commissioning Button definitions and the associated
LED functions.
To enable the Commissioning Button functionality on TH pin 20/SMT pin 33, set DO command to 1. The
functionality is enabled by default.
Use the CB command to simulate button presses in software. Send CB with a parameter set to the
number of button presses to perform. For example, if you send CB2, the device performs the action(s)
associated with two button presses, CB4 is four button presses. See CB command.
It provides two different services:
nTwo button presses in fast sequence invoke WPS; see Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS).
nFour button presses in fast sequence force the device into Soft AP Provisioning mode by
clearing the SSID and security parameters. It also ensures that Soft AP mode is enabled. After
the four button presses clear the security parameters, they are NOT written. Send a separate
WR command, if desired.
The following features can be supported in hardware. Connect a pushbutton and an LED to XBee Wi-Fi
RF Module pins 33 and 28 (SMT), or pins 20 and 15 (TH) respectively to support Commissioning Button
definitions and the associated LED functions.
Push butt on _|_ OO J, 1 Associate LED
Operation Connection indicators
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 39
Connection indicators
There are four connection indicators in this software:
nAI (Association Indication)
nThe Associate LED
nTCP connection indicator
nRemote Manager connection indicator
The Associate LED
The Associate pin (TH pin 15/SMT pin 28) provides an indication of when the device associates with an
access point (AP). To take advantage of these indications, connect an LED to the Associate pin.
To enable the Associate LED functionality, set D5 (DIO5 Configuration) to 1; it is enabled by default. If
enabled, the Associate pin is configured as an output.
Use LT command to override the blink rate of the Associate pin. If you set LT to 0, the device uses the
default blink time: 250 ms.
TCP connection indicator
In Transparent mode, only one TCP connection is allowed and you can configure DIO12 (also known as
CD) to indicate whether or not that TCP socket is connected. To enable DIO12, set P2 (DIO12
Configuration) to 6. When so configured, DIO12 outputs a low signal when the TCP socket is connected
and it outputs a high signal when the TCP socket is disconnected. The high signal remains when
operating in UDP mode because there is never be a TCP connection.
entry chan
Operation Perform a serial firmware update
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 40
Remote Manager connection indicator
AI (Association Indication) and the Associate LED indicate when the device is fully associated with the
access point (AP), but there is another level of connectivity provided by DI (Remote Manager Indicator)
that tells whether or not the TCP socket to Digi Remote Manager is connected. The values defined for
DI are:
n0= Connected to Remote Manager
n1= Configured, but not yet associated to AP
n2= Associated to AP, but not yet connected to Remote Manager
n3= Disconnecting from Remote Manager
n4= Not configured to connect to Remote Manager
When DI is either 2or 3, the Associate LED has a different blink pattern that looks like this:
Where the low signal means LED off and the high signal means LED on.
The normal association LED signal alternates evenly between high and low as shown below:
Perform a serial firmware update
Serial firmware updates use the XBee bootloader which ships in all devices. This bootloader allows you
to update the firmware. Normally, the running application can be told to invoke the bootloader
through a command from XCTU. If that command is not available in the currently loaded firmware, the
bootloader includes a modified entry mechanism using pins TH pin 3/SMT pin 4, TH pin 9/SMT pin 10,
and TH pin 16/SMT pin 29 (DIN, DTR, and RTS, respectively).
To force the XBee bootloader to run and load a new version of the firmware, at the time the device is
reset:
1. Drive DIN low.
2. Drive DTR low.
3. Drive RTS high.
This method works even when the current firmware version does not support the firmware update
feature. XCTU can update firmware on the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module over the UART port, but not over the
SPI port. Contact Digi support for details.
Modes
Serial modes 42
Modes of operation 47
Sleep modes 49
Soft AP mode 49
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 41
Modes Serial modes
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 42
Serial modes
The firmware operates in several different modes. Two top-level modes establish how the device
communicates with other devices through its serial interface: Transparent operating mode and API
operating mode. Use the AP command to choose Serial mode. XBee Wi-Fi RF Modules use Transparent
operation as the default serial mode.
The following modes describe how the serial port sends and receives data.
Transparent operating mode
Devices operate in this mode by default. The device acts as a serial line replacement when it is in
Transparent operating mode. The device queues all UART data it receives through the DIN pin for RF
transmission. When a device receives RF data, it sends the data out through the DOUT pin. You can set
the configuration parameters using Command mode.
Note Transparent operating mode is not available when using the SPI interface; see SPI
communications.
Serial-to-RF packetization
The device buffers data in the serial receive buffer until one of the following causes the data to be
packetized and transmitted:
nThe device receives no serial characters for the amount of time determined by the RO
(Packetization Timeout) parameter. If RO = 0, packetization begins when a character is
received. If RO is non-zero, the data is packetized after RO character times of no transitions on
the DIN pin. However, if the time required for RO characters is less than 100 microseconds,
then DIN must still be idle for at least 100 microseconds, which is the minimal idle time
required for packetizing packets at any baud rate.
nThe device receives the Command Mode Sequence (GT +CC +GT). Any character buffered in
the serial receive buffer before the sequence is transmitted.
nThe device receives the maximum number of characters that fits in an RF packet (100 bytes).
API operating mode
Application programming interface (API) operating mode is an alternative to Transparent mode. It is
helpful in managing larger networks and is more appropriate for performing tasks such as collecting
data from multiple locations or controlling multiple devices remotely. API mode is a frame-based
protocol that allows you to direct data on a packet basis. It can be particularly useful in large
networks where you need control over the operation of the radio network or when you need to know
which node a data packet is from. The device communicates UART or SPI data in packets, also known
as API frames. This mode allows for structured communications with serial devices.
The application programming interface (API) provides alternative means of configuring devices and
routing data at the host application layer. A host application can send data frames to the device that
contain address and payload information instead of using Command mode to modify addresses. The
device sends data frames to the application containing status packets, as well as source and payload
information from received data packets.
For more information, see API mode overview.
Modes Serial modes
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 43
Comparing Transparent and API modes
The XBee Wi-Fi RF Module can use its serial connection in two ways:Transparent mode or API
operating mode. You can use a mixture of devices running API mode and transparent mode in a
network.
The following table compares the advantages of transparent and API modes of operation:
Feature Description
Transparent mode features
Simple interface All received serial data is transmitted unless the device is in Command
mode
Easy to support It is easier for an application to support Transparent operation and
Command mode
API mode features
Easy to manage data
transmissions to
multiple destinations
Transmitting RF data to multiple remote devices only requires the
application to change the address in the API frame. This process is much
faster than in Transparent mode where the application must enter
Command mode, change the address, exit Command mode, and then
transmit data.
Each API transmission
can return a transmit
status frame indicating
the success or reason
for failure
Because acknowledgments are sent out of the serial interface, this
provides more information about the health of the RF network and can
be used to debug issues after the network has been deployed.
Received data frames
indicate the sender's
address
All received RF data API frames indicate the source address
Advanced addressing
support
API transmit and receive frames can expose addressing fields including
source and destination endpoints, cluster ID, and profile ID
Advanced networking
diagnostics
API frames can provide indication of I/O samples from remote devices,
and node identification messages. Some network diagnostic tools such as
Trace Route, NACK, and Link Testing can only be performed in API mode.
Remote Configuration Set/read configuration commands can be sent to remote devices to
configure them as needed using the API
We recommend API mode when a device:
nSends RF data to multiple destinations
nSends remote configuration commands to manage devices in the network
nReceives RF data packets from multiple devices, and the application needs to know which
device sent which packet
API mode is required when:
Modes Serial modes
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 44
nReceiving I/O samples from remote devices
nUsing SPI for the serial port
nSends RF data to multiple destinations
nSends remote configuration commands to manage devices in the network
nReceives IO samples from remote devices
nReceives RF data packets from multiple devices, and the application needs to know which
device sent which packet
nNeeds to use the send data request and device request features of Remote Manager
If the conditions listed above do not apply (for example, a sensor node, router, or a simple application),
then Transparent operation might be suitable. It is acceptable to use a mixture of devices running API
mode and Transparent mode in a network.
The following table provides a comparison of the two modes.
Transparent operating mode API operating mode
When to use:
nThe conditions for using API mode
do not apply.
When to use:
nThe device sends wireless data to multiple
destinations.
nThe device configures remote devices in the
network.
nThe device receives wireless data packets from
multiple XBee devices, and the application needs
to identify which devices send each packet.
nThe device receives I/O samples from remote
XBee devices.
Advantages:
nProvides a simple interface.
nIt is easy for an application to
support; what you send is exactly
what other devices get, and vice
versa.
nWorks very well for two-way
communication between XBee
devices.
Advantages:
nYou can set or read the configuration of remote
XBee devices in the network.
nYou can transmit data to one or multiple
destinations; this is much faster than
Transparent mode where the configuration must
be updated to establish a new destination.
nReceived data includes the sender's address.
nReceived data includes transmission details and
reasons for success or failure.
nThis mode has several advanced features, such
as advanced networking diagnostics, and
firmware updates.
Modes Serial modes
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 45
Transparent operating mode API operating mode
Disadvantages:
nYou cannot set or read the
configuration of remote XBee
devices in the network.
nYou must first update the
configuration to establish a new
destination and transmit data.
nYou cannot identify the source of
received data, as it does not
include the sender's address.
nReceived data does not include
transmission details or the
reasons for success or failure.
nThis mode does not offer the
advanced features of API mode,
including advanced networking
diagnostics, and firmware
updates.
Disadvantages:
nThe interface is more complex; data is structured
in packets with a specific format.
nThis mode is more difficult to support;
transmissions are structured in packets that
need to be parsed (to get data) or created (to
transmit data).
nSent data and received data are not identical;
received packets include some control data and
XTend vB information.
Command mode
Command mode is a state in which the firmware interprets incoming characters as commands. It
allows you to modify the devices configuration using parameters you can set using AT
commands.When you want to read or set any parameter of the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module using this mode,
you have to send an AT command.Every AT command starts with the lettersATfollowed by the two
characters that identify the command and then by some optional configuration values.
The operating modes of the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module are controlled by the API Enable setting,
butCommand mode is always available as a mode thedevice can enter while configured for any of the
operating modes.
Command mode is available on the UART interface for all operating modes. You cannot use the SPI
interface to enter Command mode.
Enter Command mode
To get a device to switch into Command mode, you must issue the following sequence:+++within one
second. There must be at least one second preceding and following the+++sequence. Both the
command character (CC) and the silence before and after the sequence (GT) are configurable. When
the entrance criteria are met the device responds with OK\r on UART signifying that it has entered
Command mode successfully and is ready to start processing AT commands.
If configured to operate in Transparent operating mode, when entering Command mode the XBee Wi-
Fi RF Module knows to stop sending data and start accepting commands locally.
Note Do not press Return or Enter after typing+++because it interrupts the guard time silence and
prevents you from entering Command mode.
When the device is in Command mode, it listens for user input and is able to receive AT commands on
the UART. IfCTtime (default is 10 seconds) passes without any user input, the device drops out of
“AT” ASCII + Space +Pa rameter Carriage prefix command (optional) +(optional, HEX)+ return I—JITJJ—ll—l | Example: AT NI 2
Modes Serial modes
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 46
Command mode and returns to the previous operating mode. You can force the device to leave
Command mode by sending CN command.
You can customize the command character, the guard times and the timeout in the device’s
configuration settings. For more information, seeCC (Command Mode Character),CT
commandandGT command.
Troubleshooting
Failure to enter Command mode is often due to baud rate mismatch. Ensure that the baud rate of the
connection matches the baud rate of the device. By default, BD (Baud Rate) =3(9600 b/s).
There are two alternative ways to enter Command mode:
nA serial break for six seconds enters Command mode. You can issue the "break" command
from a serial console, it is often a button or menu item.
nAsserting DIN (serial break) upon power up or reset enters Command mode. XCTU guides you
through a reset and automatically issues the break when needed.
Both of these methods temporarily set the device's baud rate to 9600 and return anOKon the UART
to indicate that Command mode is active. When Command mode exits, the device returns to normal
operation at the baud rate that BDis set to.
Send AT commands
Once the device enters Command mode, use the syntax in the following figure to send AT commands.
Every AT command starts with the lettersAT, which stands for "attention." TheATis followed by two
characters that indicate which command is being issued, then by some optional configuration values.
To read a parameter value stored in the device’s register, omit the parameter field.
Multiple AT commands
You can send multiple AT commands at a time when they are separated by a comma in Command
mode; for example,ATNIMy XBee,AC<cr>.
The preceding example changes theNI (Node Identifier) to My XBeeand makes the setting active
through AC (Apply Changes).
Parameter format
Refer to the list of AT commands for the format of individual AT command parameters. Valid formats
for hexidecimal values include with or without a leading0xfor exampleFFFFor0xFFFF.
Response to AT commands
When using AT commands to set parameters the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module responds with OK<cr> if
successful and ERROR<cr> if not.
Modes Modes of operation
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 47
Apply command changes
Any changes you make to the configuration command registers using AT commands do not take effect
until you apply the changes. For example, if you send theBDcommand to change the baud rate, the
actual baud rate does not change until you apply the changes. To apply changes:
1. Send AC (Apply Changes).
2. Send WR command.
or:
3. Exit Command mode.
Make command changes permanent
Send a WR command command to save the changes. WR writes parameter values to non-volatile
memory so that parameter modifications persist through subsequent resets.
Send as RE command to wipe settings saved using WR back to their factory defaults.
Note You still have to use WR to save the changes enacted with RE.
Exit Command mode
1. Send CN command followed by a carriage return.
or:
2. If the device does not receive any valid AT commands within the time specified byCT
command, it returns to Transparent or API mode. The default Command mode timeout
is10seconds.
For an example of programming the device using AT Commands and descriptions of each configurable
parameter, see AT commands.
Modes of operation
Idle mode
When not receiving or transmitting data, the device is in Idle mode. During Idle mode, the device
listens for valid data on both the RF and serial ports.
The device shifts into the other modes of operation under the following conditions:
nTransmit mode (serial data in the serial receive buffer is ready to be packetized).
nReceive mode (valid RF data received through the antenna).
nSleep mode (Sleep mode condition is met).
nCommand mode (Command mode sequence issued).
Transmit mode
When the device receives serial data and is ready to packetize it, the device attempts to transmit the
serial data. The destination address determines which node(s) will receive and send the data.
Modes Modes of operation
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 48
Receive mode
This is the default mode for the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module. The device is in Receive mode when it is not
transmitting data. If a destination node receives a valid RF packet, the destination node transfers the
data to its serial transmit buffer.
Configuration mode
You may not always know the parameters that the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module is configured with. If those
parameters affect how the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module enters Command mode, and if the parameters were
previously written to non-volatile memory, then Command mode is not available to either read the
parameters or to set them to known values. This makes configuring the device difficult unless you can
successfully guess the configuration to allow it to enter Command mode.
An example of this problem is when the UART baud rate is unknown. In this case, the +++ sequence to
enter Command mode is not recognized due to a baud rate mismatch, preventing the device from
entering Command mode.
Force the device to enter Configuration mode
To overcome the issue of unknown configuration parameters, you can force the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module
into Command mode with a known configuration as follows:
While holding DIN low (asserting the break key), reset the device.
Rather than coming up in Transparent mode, which is normal, it comes up in Command mode and
issues the OK prompt with the following default parameters applied for operation while in Command
mode:
Parameter setting Meaning
P3 = 1, P4 = 1 UART enabled—only set for SPI-enabled devices
BD = 3 9600 baud rate
SB = 0 One stop bit
NB = 0 No parity
RO = 3 Three character times with no change on DIN before transmission
D6 = 0 No RTS flow control
D7 = 1 CTS flow control
FT 65 characters left in transmission buffer before CTS is turned off
CC = 0x2b +is used for Command mode character
GT = 0x3e8 One second guard time
CT = 0x64 Ten second Command mode timeout
If the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module exits Configuration mode without changing any parameter values, then all
parameters revert to their previous unknown state after it exits Command mode. Also, any values
that you query return the previously written settings rather than the temporarily applied default
settings described above.
Modes Sleep modes
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 49
Recover from an unknown configuration
To recover from an unknown configuration to a known configuration, do the following:
1. Set up the interface to the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module to match the default configuration described
in Force the device to enter Configuration mode.
2. Press and hold DIN low while resetting the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module.
3. Release DIN (let it be pulled high) so the device can receive UART data.
4. At the OK prompt, enter the desired configuration settings. If desired, configuration settings
which were unknown may be read before setting them in this state.
5. Use the WR command to write the desired configuration to non-volatile memory.
6. Set up the interface to the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module to match the configuration just written to
non-volatile memory.
7. Optionally, reset the device and begin operation in the new mode.
Use XCTU to enter Configuration mode
XCTU is designed to support a forced configuration on a UART interface using the following
instructions. XCTU does not work directly over a SPI interface.
1. Connect an asynchronous serial port of the PC (either RS-232 or USB) to the development
board that the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module is plugged into.
2. Open XCTU.
3. To add your device to XCTU, see Add radio modules to XCTU in the XCTUUser Guide.
4. The device(s) appear under the Radio Modules section on the left of the display.
5. To configure the settings, see Configure your modules in the XCTUUser Guide.
6. When you are done entering the parameters, click the Write module settings button.
When the write is complete, all of the settings on the device are updated.
Click the Consoles working mode button on the toolbar and begin normal Transparent operation.
Sleep mode
Sleep modes allow the device to enter states of low power consumption when not in use. The XBee
Wi-Fi RF Module supports both pin sleep (Sleep mode entered on pin transition) and cyclic sleep
(device sleeps for a fixed time).
Sleep modes
Sleep modes allow the device to enter states of low power consumption when not in use. The XBee
Wi-Fi RF Module supports both pin sleep (sleep mode entered on pin transition) and cyclic sleep (device
sleeps for a fixed time). For both pin sleep and cyclic sleep the sleep level may be either deep sleep or
associated sleep. See Sleep modes for more information.
Soft AP mode
The XBee Wi-Fi RF Module can operate in Soft AP mode, also known as Wi-Fi Direct. In this mode the
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module emulates an access point (AP) rather than a station (STA). This allows another
Wi-Fi client device (STA) to connect to the XBee device directly without requiring a separate AP. WPA2
Modes Soft AP mode
XBee Wi-Fi RF Module User Guide 50
security is available in Soft AP mode, but not WPA or WEP security. By default, Soft AP operates with
no security.
Enable Soft AP mode
The device operates in Soft AP mode in two different ways:
1. Provisioning mode
2. Pass through mode
You enable these two modes differently. To enable Pass through mode:
Set CE (Infrastructure Mode) to 1, which is not the default configuration. When CE is 1, it overrides
parameters for Provisioning mode.
Provisioning mode is enabled by default. To disable it:
Clear bit 1 of DO command.
To enable Provisioning mode, SSID must be NULL. SSID is NULL by default and you can force it to NULL
by issuing NR (Network Reset).
Station (STA) connection in Soft AP Provisioning mode
When the device operates in Soft AP Provisioning mode, it waits for a connection from a STA device.
Because the Service Set Identifier (SSID) is not configured, AI (Association Indication) is 0x23. The STA
device must:
nSupport Wi-Fi
nHave an HTTP browser operating on TCP port 80
Examples of devices that might connect to the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module operating in Soft AP mode are
smart phones, tablets, and laptop computers.
The connecting STA device should scan for an AP. The XBee Wi-Fi RF Module advertises an SSID of:
xbee<MAC>
where <MAC> is the 6 byte MAC address of the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module formatted as follows:
xbee-XXXXXXXXXXXX
where each X represents a hex digit.
The STA needs to connect to that SSID, and then open a browser by entering 192.168.1.10 into the
address bar. This opens the webpage from the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module to allow you to configure it as
desired. The primary purpose of this webpage is to configure the XBee Wi-Fi RF Module to connect to
the desired access point with the desired security settings. The secondary purpose is to configure any
other parameters.
Use the webpage to configure a connected device
The webpage displays the current value of each configuration field.
1. Enter the desired parameters.
2. Click the Apply button at the bottom of the page.
The selected par