LUXEON Z ES Assembly, Handling Datasheet by Lumileds

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GENERAL ILLUMINATION
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved.
LUXEON Z ES
Assembly and Handling Information
Introduction
This application brief addresses the recommended assembly and handling
procedures for LUXEON Z ES emitters. Proper assembly, handling, and thermal
management, as outlined in this application brief, ensure high optical output and
long lumen maintenance for LUXEON Z ES emitters.
Scope
The assembly and handling guidelines in this application brief apply to all the
products in the LUXEON Z ES product family. In the remainder of this document the
term LUXEON ES emitter refers to this product family and the term LUXEON emitters
refers to a generic Lumileds LED.
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 2
Table of Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
1 . Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
1.1 Description ..........................................................................3
1.2 Optical Center .......................................................................3
1.3 Handling Precautions .................................................................4
1.4 Cleaning ............................................................................4
1.5 Electrical Isolation ....................................................................4
1.6 Mechanical Files......................................................................4
1.7 Soldering............................................................................4
2 . LUXEON Z ES Printed Circuit Board Design Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
2.1 LUXEON Z ES Footprint and Land Pattern ...............................................6
2.2 Surface Finishing .....................................................................7
2.3 Minimum Spacing ....................................................................7
3 . Thermal Design and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
3.1 MCPCB Design Parameters ............................................................8
3.2 FR4 Design Parameters ...............................................................8
3.3 Summary of PCB Thermal Resistance Result ............................................10
3.4 High Component Layout Example .....................................................10
4 . Thermal Measurement Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
5. SolderReflowGuidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
5.1 Stencil, Solder Mask Design, and Silk Screen Labels......................................13
5.2 Solder Paste ........................................................................15
5.3 Solder Paste Screen Printing..........................................................15
5.4 Solder Reflow Profile.................................................................15
5.5 Placement Accuracy .................................................................15
5.6 Solder Wetting and Voids ............................................................16
6 . Assembly Process Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
6.1 Pick-and-Place ......................................................................16
6.2 Pick-and-Place Machine Optimization ..................................................21
7 . PCB Inspection and Handling Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
7.1 Introduction .......................................................................23
7.2 Packaging ..........................................................................23
7.3 Inspection of Incoming PCBs .........................................................23
8 . Packaging Considerations — Chemical Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
About Lumileds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
LION Emma; MICE x—mm
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 3
1. Component
1.1 Description
The LUXEON Z ES emitter is an ultra-compact, surface mount, high-power LED. Each LUXEON Z ES emitter consists
of a high brightness InGaN chip with a phosphor layer on top of a ceramic substrate. The ceramic substrate provides
mechanical support and provides a thermal path from the LED chip to the bottom of the emitter. An interconnect layer
electrically connects the LED chip to cathode and anode pads of equal size on the bottom of the ceramic substrate. The
thermal pad, anode and cathode of the LUXEON Z ES emitter are shown in Figure 1.
The entire top surface of the LUXEON Z ES is covered with a thin layer of silicone to shield the chip from the environment
and to create white light.
LUXEON Z ES emitters contain a transient voltage suppressor (TVS) chip which protects the LED chip against
electrostatic discharge (ESD) events. The TVS chip creates some minor topographical variations across the top surface
of the LUXEON Z ES emitters.
Figure 1. Top view (left) and bottom view (right) of a LUXEON Z ES emitter.
1.2 Optical Center
The theoretical optical center of the LUXEON Z ES emitter is 0.82mm from the top and 0.82mm from the side edges of the
ceramic substrate (see Figure 2).
Figure 2. The optical center of the LUXEON Z ES emitter is 0.82mm from the top and 0.82mm from the side edges.
M >4
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 4
Figure 3. Correct handling (top) and incorrect handling (bottom) of LUXEON emitters.
1.3 Handling Precautions
The LUXEON Z ES emitter is designed to maximize light output and reliability. However, improper handling of the emitter
may damage the LED chip and affect the overall performance and reliability. In order to minimize the risk of damage to the
LED chip during handling, as will all LUXEON emitters, LUXEON Z ES should only be picked up manually from the side of
the ceramic substrate as illustrated in Figure 3.
When handling finished boards containing LUXEON Z ES emitters, do not touch the top surface with any fingers (see Figure
4a) or apply any pressure to it. Also, do no turn over the board for probing, if the electrodes are at the back of the board,
or stack multiple boards on top of each other (see Figure 4b). A rough or contaminated surface, being placed against the
top of a LUXEON Z ES emitter, may damage the silicone overcoat of the emitter. Furthermore, any pressure applied onto
the LUXEON Z ES emitter during probing may damage the silicone layer or the chip underneath.
1.4 Cleaning
The LUXEON Z ES emitter should not be exposed to dust and debris. Excessive dust and debris may cause a drastic
decrease in optical output. In the event that the surface of a LUXEON Z ES emitter requires cleaning, a compressed gas
duster at a distance of 6” away will be sufficient to remove the dust and debris or an air gun with 20 psi (at nozzle) from a
distance of 6”. Make sure the parts are secured first.
1.5 Electrical Isolation
The ceramic substrate of LUXEON Z ES emitters electrically isolates the thermal pad from the anode and cathode pads. As
a reference the minimum distance between the thermal pad and the anode or cathode is 0.25mm. In order to avoid any
electrical shocks and/or damage to the LUXEON Z ES emitter, each design needs to comply with the appropriate standards
of safety and isolation distances, known as clearance and creepage distances, respectively (e.g. IEC60950, clause 2.10.4).
1.6 Mechanical Files
Mechanical drawings for LUXEON Z ES (2D and 3D) are available from at lumileds.com.
1.7 Soldering
LUXEON Z ES emitters are designed to be soldered onto a Printed Circuit Board (PCB). For detailed design of PCB, see Section 2.
combined layels (a) I. D " I (b)
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 5
Figure 4. Do not touch the top of surface of the LUXEON emitter when handling a finished board (a)
or stack boards with one or more LUXEON emitters on top of each other (b).
2. LUXEON Z ES Printed Circuit Board Design Rules
The LUXEON Z ES emitter is designed to be soldered onto a PCB via standard surface mount technology (SMT). To ensure
optimal operation of the LUXEON Z ES emitter, the PCB should be designed to minimize the overall thermal resistance
between the LED package and the heat sink.
There are two preferred PCB footprint designs for LUXEON Z ES, depending on the packing density and PCB
manufacturing capabilities:
a. Layout design A: for low component count density. The solder mask opening defines the outline of
LUXEON Z ES emitter package outline. The PCB pads for LUXEON Z ES emitter are copper trace
defined. See Figure 5 (top row).
b. Layout design B: for high component count density or any LED arrangement where it is no longer possible
to electrically isolate the thermal pad. Each PCB pad of corresponding LUXEON Z ES emitter pads is solder
mask defined. See Figure 5 (bottom row). The higher component count density board may require tighter PCB
fabrication tolerance and tighter assembly tolerance such as placement accuracy and stencil printing to ensure
high product quality and process yield. Note: layout design B can be also be used for low density assembly.
Figure 5. Layout design A (top row) and layout design B (bottom row).
Lam mmm _. ojwq ._ Optical Conn! : — «.5000 ' moo — . F woo woo —-- om » «.3750 f W + ......_.. LUXEW Z ES pod outline: _ my — stemil panem — Solder mask wen'm
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 6
Figure 6. Recommended PCB footprint design for LUXEON Z ES for low component
count density (layout design A). Dimensions in mm.
2.1 LUXEON Z ES Footprint and Land Pattern
The LUXEON Z ES emitter has three pads that need to be soldered onto corresponding pads on a PCB to ensure proper
thermal and electrical operation. Figure 6 shows the recommended footprint design for a single LUXEON Z ES emitter on
MCPCB or FR4 for low density assembly (design A). Heat spreading into the PCB is improved by extending the thermal pad
and electrodes on the PCB beyond the package outline which is the same as the solder mask opening as shown in Figure
6. Thermal simulations indicate that heat spreading is maximized if the thermal pad and electrodes are extended 3mm
from the center of the LUXEON Z ES emitter.
Figure 7 shows the recommended footprint design for a single LUXEON Z ES emitter for MCPCB for layout design B with
solder mask defined pads. In order to efficiently layout the electrical path on a PCB without the use of multi-layer PCB,
the thermal pad of LUXEON Z ES emitter can be made electrically active as shown in Figure 8. The solder mask defined
pads are required to prevent solder wicking. This is more desirable than a multi-layer PCB since adding layers in the PCB
increases the overall thermal resistance of the PCB.
For both design A and B, due to the smaller electrode pad features, the alignment between the stencil and the PCB board
during solder paste screen is important to minimize potential shorting or insufficient solder paste between pad and PCB
after reflow. For more detail, see section 5.3.
***** LUXEON Z E5 package outh'ne Copper Skenu‘wl pattern Su‘der mask (some \uynut us LUXEON Z ES pods) + Dplical center Connertrace pattern (red) Sewer mask opening (green) LUXEDN Z ES (dotted Ime)
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 7
Figure 7. Layout design B. Recommended PCB footprint for LUXEON Z ES for high component
count density based on solder mask defined pads. Dimensions in mm.
2.2 Surface Finishing
Lumileds recommends using a high temperature organic solderability preservative (OSP) on the copper layer at this time.
2.3 Minimum Spacing
Lumileds recommends a minimum edge to edge spacing between LUXEON Z ES emitters of 0.2mm for the high density
assembly footprint and 0.3mm for the low density assembly footprint. Placing multiple LUXEON Z ES emitters too close to
each other may adversely impact the ability of the PCB to dissipate the heat from the emitters. Also, the light output for
each LED may drop due to optical absorption by adjacent LED packages.
Figure 8. High component count density with layout design B electrically connecting the anode of LUXEON Z ES (right)
to the cathode of the adjacent LUXEON Z ES (left) via one of the LUXEON Z ES thermal pads.
Ink / Solder Mas k C opper E poxy Alumin um MCPCB
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 8
3. Thermal Design and Management
3.1 MCPCB Design Parameters
The overall thermal resistance of MCPCB depends on several key factors:
a. Copper layer thickness (in oz such as 1oz versus 2oz copper, thicker copper is preferred)
b. Epoxy dielectric thermal conductivity (in Wm-1K-1, a higher value is better)
c. Epoxy dielectric thickness (in um, a lower value is, generally speaking better; note though that the epoxy
thickness will impact the PCB dielectric breakdown voltage. If needed, the dielectric breakdown voltage must
comply to UL, IEC or any applicable standards in each region or national standards)
d. Aluminum board thickness (in mm, a thinner board is better but may affect the mechanical strength)
e. LED emitter spacing. Smaller spacing increases thermal crowding, resulting in higher thermal resistance values.
A typical cross section of an MCPCB construction is shown in Figure 9.
Throughout this application brief, Lumileds has evaluated a single emitter MCPCB using layout design B with these MCPCB
parameters: copper layer of 1oz and 2oz, dielectric thermal conductivity of 2.1 Wm-1K-1, dielectric thickness of 100um
(yielding approx DC hi-pot test of 4kV) and an aluminum board thickness of 1.0mm.
Figure 9. Typical cross section of MCPCB.
3.2 FR4 Design Parameters
The overall thermal resistance of FR4 depends on several key factors:
a. Copper layer thickness plating (in oz, thicker copper is preferred)
b. Via type design (open plated through hole or filled and capped. The latter provides better thermal performance
but at higher cost)
c. Number of vias. In general, there is an optimum number of vias and beyond this number, the thermal
performance does not increase significantly.
d. Via diameter and spacing. The first row of vias surrounding the thermal pad removes most of the heat so
proper positioning and sizing of these vias plays a big factor. The determination of this can be done via thermal
simulation.
e. FR4 board thickness (in mm, thinner is better but will reduce mechanical strength)
f. LED emitter spacing. Smaller spacing increases thermal crowding effect, leading to higher thermal resistance.
Ink 50hr Mask WV (WWII) Em Imdlh’mgh hokv'l Conn-mom) l§|ll|l — LUXEON z B pad! mm". — Cnpper — Stmcfl pnuun * Snldet musk opening W1 hole (diameter : 045mm) Opficm Cenlzr
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 9
Figure 10. Typical cross section of an FR4 PCB based on an open PTH design.
A typical cross section of an FR4 PCB based on open via plated through hole (PTH) is shown in Figure 10. The LUXEON Z ES
footprint on FR4 PCB is similar to design A (see Figure 6) with the exception of thermal vias placed outside the electrically
isolated thermal pad. Figure 11 shows an example of a FR4 with PTH which is suitable for low density assembly. There is no
recommendation of high density assembly layout design for FR4.
It is not desirable to place open PTH vias on the traces outside the anode and cathode (copper traces must be separated
to prevent shorting) since this will require a reliable thermal interface material (non electrically conductive) between the
PCB and the heatsink. The quality of this thermal interface material may have impact to the hi-pot dielectric strength test of
the PCB to heatsink.
Lumileds has evaluated the thermal performance of the board shown in Figure 11 based on 1.0mm thick FR4 with open
PTH vias. The total thickness of the copper plating on the top and bottom of the PCB is 2oz each and the plating inside the
thermal vias is about 1oz. The diameter of the thermal vias is 0.45mm (as drilled). This design contains 15 thermal vias.
For general guidelines on FR4 PCB based designs, please refer to section 3 of Lumileds document AB32 “LUXEON LED
Assembly and Handling Information”.
(X, Y) RELATIVE TO OPTICAL CENTER (MM)
HOLE NO. X Y
1 1.205 -0.175
2 1.205 0.525
3 1.050 1.205
4 0.350 1.205
5 -0.350 1.205
6 -1.050 1.205
7 -1.205 0.525
8 -1.205 -0.175
91.811 0.175
10 1.725 0.993
11 0.700 1.811
12 0.000 1.811
13 -0.700 1.811
14 -1.725 0.993
15 -1.811 0.175
Figure 11. LUXEON Z ES FR4 PCB design with 15 open plated-through-hole vias.
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3.3 Summary of PCB Thermal Resistance Result
Table 1 shows the typical thermal resistance of various PCB star boards that were evaluated for reference.
Table 1. Typical thermal resistance of PCB star boards (single emitter) between thermal pad and bottom of board/heatsink.
BOARD TYPE (SEE SECTION 3.1 AND 3.2 FOR DETAIL BOARD PARAMETERS) TYPICAL RTH_PAD-HEATSINK (K/W)
1mm FR4 open PTH vias (1oz + 1oz for additional plating) 9.0
1mm MCPCB 1oz copper (design B) 9.0
1mm MCPCB 2oz copper (design B) 5.6
The MCPCB thermal resistance for design A footprint design is similar to design B.
3.4 High Component Layout Example
Due to its compact and high flux performance in a small area, LUXEON Z ES is well suited for high density packaging
applications where multiple LUXEON Z ES emitters are packed right next to each other. There are many different
configurations on how the LUXEON Z ES can be placed onto a PCB to meet customer specific application needs. For
reference, Lumileds performed thermal studies on two configurations: a 4-up and 9-up configurations as shown in Figure
12 with 200um package to package spacing. The LUXEON Z ES footprint is based on layout design B.
Table 2. Typical thermal resistance from junction-to-heat sink (Rthj-hs) of a 4-up and 9-up Al-MCPCB star boards mounted
on infinite heat sink. Include 1-up result for reference. MCPCB is constructed using design B.
Figure 12. An example of 4-up and 9-up configuration for thermal studies.
EMITTER ARRAY CONFIGURATION (SEE SECTION 3.1
AND 3.2 FOR DETAIL BOARD PARAMETERS USED)
AVERAGE RTHJ-HS
(K/W) MEASUREMENT
AVERAGE THEORETICAL RTHJ-HS
(IDEAL)
1-up MCPCB 1oz copper 12.0 12.0
1-up MCPCB 2oz copper 8.6 8.6
4-up MCPCB 1oz copper 5.1 3.0
4-up MCPCB 2oz copper 3.7 2.1
9-up MCPCB 1oz copper 2.9 1.3
9-up MCPCB 2oz copper 2.3 0.95
Thermal resistance junction-tn- heatsink (KIW) 2 m o m 1 + M _1/(Rth, 12ch + m3 I 101 \ o 201 - 1 oz exponelial m ploieclion 77777 2 oz exponeniial m prolecllon D 2 4 6 a 10 12 1A 15 No. of emitters 200um package to package spacing
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 11
Table 2 shows the average thermal resistance between junction and heat sink (Rthj-hs) of various Al-MCPCB with 1oz and
2oz copper with various configurations of 1, 4 (2 x 2) and 9 (3 x 3) LUXEON Z ES emitters. The theoretical Rthj-hs of
a 4-up and 9-up configurations; assuming each LED is infinitely placed far away, is provided in Table 2 for comparison.
This theoretical value limits the lowest possible Rthj-hs that can be achieved when building a 4-up and 9-up board. In high
density assembly, thermal crowding effect from adjacent LEDs will affect the overall Rthj-hs, so larger LED spacing reduces
this value.
The theoretical formula for this ideal situation can be calculated using the sum of parallel resistance formula i.e.:
where Rth1, Rth2, etc is the thermal resistance of a single emitter.
Figure 13 shows the graphical result of Table 2 of the Rthj-hs versus the number of emitters on the board with package to
package spacing of 200um. An approximate exponential fit curve is shown to illustrate this trend.
The data also show that as more emitters are added, both the 1oz and 2oz copper Rthj-hs converges. Hence increasing the
copper layer thickness from 1oz and 2oz for high density configuration (greater than 9 emitters in this example) will not
yield significant Rthj-hs improvement.
To further reduce the thermal resistance of such a board, one can consider the following options:
a. Use dielectric material with higher thermal conductivity value
b. Reduce the dielectric material thickness. However this will impact PCB dielectric breakdown voltage
c. Create a direct metal thermal path to the LUXEON Z ES emitter without the use of any dielectric. This is feasible
because the LUXEON Z ES thermal pad is electrically isolated from the electrical pads but will result in higher
PCB cost
d. Substitute the MCPCB with a highly conductive ceramic material such as aluminum nitride.
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Figure 13. Thermal resistance versus number of emitters.
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 12
4. Thermal Measurement Guidelines
This section provides general guidelines on how to determine the junction temperature of a LUXEON Z ES emitter in a
stand-alone in order to verify that the junction temperature in the actual application during regular operation does not
exceed the maximum allowable temperature specified in the datasheet.
The typical thermal resistance Rθj-thermal pad between the junction and the thermal pad for LUXEON Z ES is specified in the
LUXEON Z ES datasheet. In LUXEON Z ES, most of the heat flows out from the thermal pad. With this information, the
junction temperature Tj can be determined according to the following equation:
Tj = Tthermal pad + Rθj-thermal pad • Pelectrical
In this equation Pelectrical is the electrical power going into the LUXEON Z ES emitter and Tthermal pad is the temperature at the
bottom of one of the LUXEON Z ES thermal pad.
In typical applications it may be difficult, though, to measure the thermal pad temperature Tthermal pad directly. Therefore, a
practical way to determine the LUXEON Z ES junction temperature is by measuring the temperature Ts of a predetermined
sensor pad on the PCB right next to the LUXEON Z ES thermal pad with a thermocouple. To ensure accurate readings,
the thermocouple must make direct contact with the copper of the PCB onto which the LUXEON Z ES is soldered, i.e.
any solder mask or other masking layer must be first removed before mounting the thermocouple onto the PCB. Figure
14 shows the location of a Ts point for various LUXEON Z ES footprint. In the FR4, the Ts point is further away due to the
positioning of the vias for optimum thermal resistance. The Ts points for low and high density MCPCB relative to the
LUXEON Z ES emitter package are slightly different because of the need to maintain a minimum width (typical min of
150um depending on PCB manufacturer capability) of the solder mask between the Ts and the thermal pad to avoid joining
of these two openings during PCB manufacturing.
The thermal resistance Rθj-s between the LUXEON Z ES junction and Ts point for single LUXEON Z ES emitter was
experimentally determined and shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Typical thermal resistance between junction and Ts point.
BOARD TYPE (SEE SECTION 3.1 AND 3.2
FOR DETAIL BOARD PARAMETERS USED RθJ-S (K/W)
1mm FR4 open PTH vias (1oz + 1oz for additional plating) 9.0
1mm 1-up MCPCB 1oz copper (design B) 7.0
1mm 1-up MCPCB 2oz copper (design B) 6.0
1mm 1-up MCPCB 1oz copper (design A) 8.0
1mm 1-up MCPCB 2oz copper (design A) 7.0
1mm 4-up MCPCB 1oz copper (design B) 2.0
1mm 4-up MCPCB 2oz copper (design B) 1.5
1mm 9-up MCPCB 1oz copper (design B) 0.9
1mm 9-up MCPCB 2oz copper (design B) 0.5
The junction temperature can then be calculated as follows:
Tj = Ts + Rθj-s • Pelectrical
In this equation Pelectrical_array is the electrical power going into the LUXEON Z ES emitter. The Rθj-s result is only valid for the
board parameters as described in section 3.1 and 3.2.
LED board configurations with multiple closely packed LUXEON Z ES emitters may require additional thermal modeling or
measurements to determine the pad temperature, especially for those LUXEON Z ES emitters which are in the center of an
array and are not easily accessible.
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5. Solder Reflow Guidelines
5.1 Stencil, Solder Mask Design, and Silk Screen Labels
Given the small size of the electrical and thermal pads of the LUXEON Z ES emitter, it is important that the appropriate
amount of solder paste is dispensed onto the PCB prior to reflow of LUXEON Z ES emitters. The recommended solder
mask and stencil design for the LUXEON emitter is included in the PCB footprint design of Figure 6 and Figure 7. The
recommended stencil thickness is 100μm or 4 mils for all the designs. Note that any silk screen labels (anode/cathode
markers, LED #, etc.) on top of the solder mask should be placed at least 2 mm outside the outline of the LUXEON Z ES
emitter. If labels are placed too close to the solder mask openings, the height of the ink may interfere with the stencil paste
printing quality. Alternatively, use a copper or FR4 defined text but need to ensure that the solder mask width is sufficient
to avoid missing solder mask area during PCB manufacturing. Typically most PCB manufacturers can process 150um
solder mask width but please consult with each manufacturer. With copper defined text, consideration on electrical safety
for approbation needs to be considered since the opening, if big enough can be made accessible to human touching.
The actual volume and placement of solder paste onto the PCB has a direct impact on the solder joint quality and reliability
after reflow. Too little solder paste may result in poor solder coverage after reflow while too much solder paste may cause
the LUXEON emitter to tilt, rotate and/or cause solder bridging during placement and reflow. In addition, poor placement
of the stencil prior to solder dispense may result in some of the solder paste being screen printed onto the solder mask,
reducing the amount of solder paste which is available to establish a strong solder joint during reflow.
In general if the solder and stencil pattern mask opening is small, higher tolerance and assembly process accuracy is
required and vice versa. This will limit the choice of a manual versus automatic assembly process. More information can be
found in section 5.3. Figure 15 to Figure 17 show examples of board layout issues, solder reflow and stencil printing issues.
Figure 14. An example of the location of Ts point for MCPCB low density, MCPCB high density
and FR4 (left to right) and an actual thermocouple attached to Ts point on Design B (top).
(a) (b) (a)
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Figure 15. A poorly placed stencil may cause some of the solder paste to be deposited onto the solder mask,
reducing the amount of solder paste which is available on the pads to establish a strong solder joint.
In this example, the silk screened circles within the LUXEON package outline may also lift the stencil
from the solder mask, compromising the quality of the solder paste deposition process.
Figure 16. PCB panels should be rigidly supported during solder paste printing to ensure proper alignment
between the stencil and the PCB as well as reliable transfer of solder paste onto the PCB. A rigid support panel is
preferred over multiple support pins, especially for PCB panels with v-scores or perforated holes for de-panel purposes.
Figure 17. An incorrectly laid out PCB may result in solder being wicked away from the smaller electrical pad to the larger
neighboring thermal pad. In this example, the cathode is directly connected to the thermal pad without any solder mask
barrier in between (a). Even though the solder paste on the thermal pad and cathode is disjointed after dispense (b), during
reflow the solder bridges between the cathode and thermal pad (c). In the worst case scenario, all the solder is wicked away
from the smaller cathode to the larger thermal pad causing an electrical open (d). The PCB should, therefore, be designed
such that any connection between the electrical pad and thermal pad remains covered by the solder mask even for the worst
possible alignment error between the solder mask and the metallization (e).
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5.2 Solder Paste
Lumileds recommends using a lead-free solder paste for LUXEON emitters. Lumileds successfully tested a grade 3
solder paste with satisfactory results. For example Alpha Metal SAC305-CVP390-M20 type 3. However, since application
environments vary widely, Lumileds recommends that customers perform their own solder paste evaluation in order to
ensure it is suitable for the targeted application.
5.3 Solder Paste Screen Printing
1. The stencil is manually aligned to the PCB prior to printing. No adjustments are made during printing.
2. The stencil is manually aligned to the PCB prior to printing. During printing, the machine keeps track of the PCB
fiducial mark(s) and makes any necessary adjustments to maintain proper alignment with the PCB.
3. A technician performs a crude alignment of the stencil to the PCB. During printing, the machine keeps track of
the PCB fiducial mark(s) and the stencil fiducial mark(s) and maintains proper alignment between the fiducials
throughout the process.
Method 1 has the worst accuracy and repeatability of the three methods discussed. Method 2 offers the same accuracy as
method 1 but ensures better repeatability. Method 3 has the best accuracy and best repeatability of the 3 methods discussed.
Depending on what screen printing method is used, the size of the anode and cathode solder mask openings on the
PCB may have to be enlarged to compensate for any misalignments between the stencil and the PCB panel. The size of
the anode and cathode openings in the stencil should be enlarged accordingly. Given the large size of the thermal pad
compared to the anode and cathode pads of the LUXEON emitter, the size of the thermal pad typically does not require
any modifications in the solder mask or stencil. Note, though, that any changes in the solder mask opening for anode
and cathode pads should not change the spacing between the three pads on the PCB, i.e. the spacing between the two
electrical pads should be 0.35mm while the spacing between the electrical pads and the thermal pad should be 0.25mm.
In order to ensure proper alignment between the stencil and the PCB as well as reliable transfer of solder paste onto the
PCB, all PCB panels should be rigidly supported during solder paste printing. Instead of placing the PCB panel on multiple
support pins (see Figure 16), it is best to place the PCB panel on a single solid plate. This is particularly important for PCB
panels which contain v-scores or perforated holes for de-panel purposes.
5.4 Solder Reflow Profile
The LUXEON emitter is compatible with standard surface-mount and lead-free reflow technologies. This greatly simplifies
the manufacturing process by eliminating the need for adhesives and epoxies. The reflow step itself is the most critical
step in the reflow soldering process and occurs when the boards move through the oven and the solder paste melts,
forming the solder joints. To form good solder joints, the time and temperature profile throughout the reflow process
must be well maintained.
A temperature profile consists of three primary phases:
1. Preheat: the board enters the reflow oven and is warmed up to a temperature lower than the melting point
of the solder alloy.
2. Reflow: the board is heated to a peak temperature above the melting point of the solder, but below the temperature
that would damage the components or the board.
3. Cool down: the board is cooled down, allowing the solder to freeze, before the board exits the oven.
For detailed information on the recommended reflow profile, refer to the IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020C reflow profile in the
appropriate datasheet for each LUXEON product.
5.5 Placement Accuracy
In order to achieve the highest placement accuracy Lumileds recommends using an automated pick and place tool with
a vision system that can recognize the bottom metallization or package outline of the LUXEON emitter (see Section 6 for
more details).
Nozzle pick-up location area. AvoidTVS which may cause poor pick-up rate, tilt, "nation or even device damage
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 16
5.6 Solder Wetting and Voids
To ensure good solder joint reliability, the solder reflow process should be tuned such that dewetting and solder voids
after reflow are minimized. Lumileds recommends a maximum specification of 25% on the combined dewetting and solder
void area under critical pads. However, since application environments vary widely, customers should always perform their
own evaluation in order to ensure that the maximum allowable amount of dewetting and solder voids is suitable for the
targeted application and operating conditions.
If excessive dewetting is observed, standards JESD22-B102E and IPC J-STD-003 provide guidelines on how to assess the
solderability of the surface mount component and the corresponding PCB, respectively. According to these specifications a
minimum of 95% of the critical surfaces tested shall exhibit good wetting. For LUXEON emitters the critical area is typically
defined as the area of the pads on the LED.
6. Assembly Process Guidelines
Figure 18. Nozzle pick-up location area for LUXEON Z ES emitters.
6.1 Pick-and-Place
Automated pick and place equipment provides the best handling and placement accuracy for LUXEON Z ES emitters.
Figure 19 to Figure 22 show various pick and place nozzle designs and corresponding machine settings which have been
successfully used to pick and place LUXEON Z ES emitters with pick and place equipment from Juki, Panasonic, Yamaha
and Samsung.
Note that pick and place nozzles are customer specific and are typically machined to fit specific pick and place tools. Based
on these pick and place experiments. Lumileds advises customer to take the following general pick and place guidelines
into account:
a. The tip of the nozzle should be positioned on the flat surface above the LED chip area; the area around the TVS
should be avoided because of height differences (see Figure 18).
b. The nozzle tip should be clean and free of any particles since this may interact with the silicone coating of the
LUXEON Z ES during pick and place.
c. During setup and the first initial production runs, it is a good practice to inspect the top surface of LUXEON Z ES
emitters under a microscope to ensure that emitters are not accidentally damaged by the pick and place nozzle.
Since LUXEON Z ES has no primary optics or lens which can act as a mechanical enclosure protection for the LED chips,
the pick-up and placement force applied to the top of the package should be kept to minimum. The pick-up area on
LUXEON Z ES is defined in Figure 18. The placement force (consisting of impact force and dwell force, also known as static
force) depends on the nozzle tip material, nozzle spring stiffness, nozzle diameter, vacuum pressure, over travel distance,
PCB height differences and PCB warping.
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 17
PICK AND MOUNT INFORMATION VISION INFORMATION
XY Fast2 Centering method Laser
Pick depth 0mm Comp shape Corner Square
Picking stroke 0mm
Pick Z down Fast2
Pick Z up Fast2
Placing stroke 0mm
Place Z down Fast2
Place Z up Fast2
Theta (Measure) Fast
Theta (Other) Fast
Figure 19. Pick and place nozzle design and machine settings for Juki KE2080L
in combination with the off-the-shelf nozzle “502.” All dimensions in mm.
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 18
PICK AND MOUNT INFORMATION VISION INFORMATION
Gap – Mount 0mm Ref 51
Gap – Pick 0mm Recognition speed Mid
Pickup position – Z -0.16mm Recognition height 0mm
Fdr drive time Std Lamp 1 0
Pickup keep time Std Lamp 2 0
Mount keep time Std Lamp 3 30
Pickup speed 80 Lamp 4 0
Mount speed 60 Lamp 5 0
Lamp 6 0
Lamp 7 0
Lamp 8 0
Figure 20. Pick and place nozzle design and corresponding machine settings
for Panasonic CM402 in combination with the off-the-shelf nozzle “115.”
Outer diameter: 12mm Inner diameter 0.6mm
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 19
PICK AND MOUNT INFORMATION VISION INFORMATION
Pick timer 0s Alignment group Special
Mount timer 0s Alignment type Odd. Chip
Pick height 0.16mm Alignment module Fore & Back & Las
Mount height 0mm Light selection Main + Coax
Mount action Normal Lighting level 6/8
Mount speed 100% Comp. threshold 60
Pickup speed 100% Comp. tolerance 15
Vacuum check Normal Chk Search area 1.5mm
Pick vacuum 20% Comp. intensity N.A.
Mount vacuum 60% Auto threshold Not Used
Figure 21. Pick and place nozzle design and corresponding machine settings
for Yamaha YV100X in combination with the off-the-shelf nozzle “7WA.”
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 20
PICK AND MOUNT INFORMATION VISION INFORMATION
Pick Height 0.16mm Camera No Fly Cam2
Mount Height 0mm Side 13
Delay – Pick Up 30msec Outer 9
Delay – Place 40msec
Delay – Vacuum Off 0msec
Delay – Blow On 0msec
Speed – XY 1
Speed – Z Pick Down 1
Speed – Z Pick Up 1
Speed – R 1
Speed – Z Place Down 1
Speed – Z Place Up 1
Z Align Speed 1
Soft Touch Not use
Mount Method Normal
Figure 22. Pick and place nozzle design and corresponding machine settings
for Samsung SM421 in combination with the off-the-shelf nozzle “CN040.”
CN040 Dimensions
Length = 13.50mm
Inner nozzle diameter = 0.38mm
Operator control panel In index feeder manually
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 21
Figure 23. Examples of an electric feeder (left) and a pneumatic feeder (right)
which are typically used in pick and place machines to advance the tape with LEDs.
6.2 Pick-and-Place Machine Optimization
Pick and place machines are typically equipped with special pneumatic or electric feeders to advance the tape containing
the LEDs. In pneumatic feeders, air pressure is used to actuate an air cylinder which then turns the sprocket wheel to
index the pocket tape; electric feeders, in contrast, use electric motors to turn the sprocket wheel (see Figure 23). Electric
feeders often also contain a panel which allows an operator to control the electric feeder manually.
The indexing step in the pick and place process may cause some LEDs to accidentally jump out of the pocket tape or may
cause some LEDs to get misaligned inside the pocket tape, resulting in pick-up errors. Depending on the feeder design,
minor modifications to the feeder can substantially improve the overall pick and place performance of the machine.
For information, there are many types of pick and place feeder designs available. Some feeders can be used as-is without
any further modifications, some feeders require a shift in the position where the cover tape is peeled off the tape, and
yet other feeders require the shutter to be completely removed so that the cover tape peeling position can be adjusted.
Figure 24 shows representative pictures of each feeder design when used on domed parts as an example (not applicable
to LUXEON Z ES). Since there are many different feeder designs in use, it is important to understand the basic principle
behind modifying the feeders so that effective modifications can still be carried out when different feeder designs are
encountered. Note that for LUXEON Z ES pick and place, there is no need to remove the shutter or shift the cover tape
peeling location unless one encounters a problem and trying to resolve pick-up issues.
To minimize the jerking of components in pneumatic feeders during indexing, it may be necessary to install an air pressure
control valve. In some pneumatic feeder designs, such a control valve is already integrated by the machine supplier; in
others an external control valve may have to be installed (see Figure 25).
» , , mrfipe peeling Iocatinn ngre 25. Pneumatic feederwirh imegraxed air pressure comrol valve uem
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 22
Figure 24. Not applicable for LUXEON Z ES but to illustrate different feeder designs and its suitability for domed parts.
Feeder 1 does not require any modification. Feeder 2 requires the cover tape peeling position to be shifted.
Feeder 3 requires the shutter to be removed before the cover tape peeling position can be adjusted.
Figure 25. Pneumatic feeder with integrated air pressure control valve (left)
and pneumatic feeder with air pressure control valve installed afterwards (right).
Fume barrier bag Humrdny Indrcaror Card
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 23
Figure 26. PCBs are typically shipped in moisture proof packaging with desiccant and a humidity indicator.
7. PCB Inspection and Handling Guidelines
7.1 Introduction
Given the small footprint of the LUXEON Z ES emitter, it is important that all PCBs are handled according to industry
standards to ensure solderability of the LUXEON emitters onto the PCBs. In particular, to avoid contamination of PCBs
and to prevent PCBs from absorbing moisture during delivery, receiving, stocking, assembly and soldering, PCBs should
be stored and handled per the guidelines spelled out in industry standard IPC-1601 “Printed Board Handling and Storage
Guidelines.”
7.2 Packaging
PCBs are typically shipped in moisture proof packaging with desiccant and a humidity indicator card, which changes color
(typically from blue to pick) with increasing humidity (see Figure 26). The desiccant absorbs any moisture that may enter
the bag and the humidity indicator card will provide an easy visual indication of the moisture level should there be an
exposure. If the 10% dot on the humidity indicator card changes color the moisture proof packaging of the PCBs is most
likely compromised. In those situations, the PCBs should be baked before use.
If PCBs are exposed to a factory ambient environment (i.e. less than 30°C/60% RH) for less than 30 minutes, the PCBs can
be re-packed with the original moisture barrier bag using a vacuum sealing machine. If the exposure to a factory ambient
environment does not exceed 60 minutes, the PCBs can be returned to a dry storage cabinet with a relative humidity of at
most 10%. If PCBs are exposed to a condition not fulfilling the above requirements, then the PCBs should be baked before
use. The appropriate bake time and temperature depends on the surface finish of the PCB as outlined in IPC-1601 “Printed
Board Handling and Storage Guidelines.”
With regards to cleanliness of incoming PCBs, ionic contamination should be kept below the maximum limit of 1.56μg
NaClEq./cm2. This is in line with the guidelines spelled out in IPC-6012 “Qualification and Performance Specification for
Rigid Printed Boards.”
7.3 Inspection of Incoming PCBs
To inspect the quality of incoming PCBs, it is best to adopt the inspection criteria in IPC-A-600F “Acceptability of Printed
Boards.” Figure 27 shows examples of unacceptable defects and contamination on incoming PCBs.
During PCB manufacturing poor positional control of the solder mask layer with respect to the top metallization can impact
the pad dimensions on the PCB. Figure 28 shows four top-view pictures of the solder mask opening and underlying copper
layer on the same 4-up PCB. In this particular example, the anode and cathode dimensions for three out of the four
LUXEON emitters are smaller than designed. Consequently, some solder paste may be placed onto the solder mask during
screen printing, causing the electrodes to have insufficient solder paste to make a reliable electrical connection.
(a) (b) (c)
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 24
Figure 27. Examples of unacceptable defects and or contamination on incoming PCBs: missing solder
resist between electrical pads (a), particles on exposed copper pads (b), and oxidized copper pads
possibly due to poor OSP control, which may cause de-wetting and/or non-wetting of the pads during reflow (c).
Figure 28. During PCB manufacturing poor positional control of the solder mask layer with respect to the
top metallization layer can impact the actual pad dimensions on the PCB. The four pictures in this example
were all taken from the same physical 4-up PCB. The anode and cathode dimensions for positions (a) – (c)
on this PCB are smaller than originally designed. Only the pad dimensions for position (d) were in specification.
Figure 29 shows examples of poor PCB workmanship, possibly due the solder mask strip process. These can cause
problems when depositing solder paste onto the pads and making electrical connection when the LUXEON emitter is
placed onto the PCB.
Figure 29. Examples of poor PCB workmanship which may adversely impact the solder
joint between the PCB and the LUXEON emitter.
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 25
8. Packaging Considerations — Chemical Compatibility
The LUXEON Z ES package contains a silicone overcoat to protect the LED chip. As with most silicones used in LED optics,
care must be taken to prevent any incompatible chemicals from directly or indirectly reacting with the silicone.
The silicone overcoat in LUXEON Z ES is gas permeable. Consequently, oxygen and volatile organic compound (VOC) gas
molecules can diffuse into the silicone overcoat. VOCs may originate from adhesives, solder fluxes, conformal coating
materials, potting materials and even some of the inks that are used to print the PCBs.
Some VOCs and chemicals react with silicone and produce discoloration and surface damage. Other VOCs do not
chemically react with the silicone material directly but diffuse into the silicone and oxidize during the presence of heat or
light. Regardless of the physical mechanism, both cases may affect the total LED light output. Since silicone permeability
increases with temperature, more VOCs may diffuse into and/or evaporate out from the silicone.
Careful consideration must be given to whether LUXEON Z ES emitters are enclosed in an “air tight” environment or
not. In an “air tight” environment, some VOCs that were introduced during assembly may permeate and remain in the
silicone overcoat. Under heat and “blue” light, the VOCs inside the silicone overcoat may partially oxidize and create a
silicone discoloration, particularly on the surface of the LED where the flux energy is the highest. In an air rich or “open”
air environment, VOCs have a chance to leave the area (driven by the normal air flow). Transferring the devices which
were discolored in the enclosed environment back to “open” air may allow the oxidized VOCs to diffuse out of the silicone
overcoat and may restore the original optical properties of the LED.
Determining suitable threshold limits for the presence of VOCs is very difficult since these limits depend on the type of
enclosure used to house the LEDs and the operating temperatures. Also, some VOCs can photo-degrade over time.
Table 4 provides a list of commonly used chemicals that should be avoided as they may react with the silicone material.
Note that Lumileds does not warrant that this list is exhaustive since it is impossible to determine all chemicals that may
affect LED performance.
The chemicals in Table 4 are typically not directly used in the final products that are built around LUXEON Z ES LEDs.
However, some of these chemicals may be used in intermediate manufacturing steps (e.g. cleaning agents).
Consequently, trace amounts of these chemicals may remain on (sub) components, such as heat sinks. Lumileds,
therefore, recommends the following precautions when designing your application:
When designing secondary lenses to be used over an LED, provide a sufficiently large air-pocket and allow for
“ventilation” of this air away from the immediate vicinity of the LED.
Use mechanical means of attaching lenses and circuit boards as much as possible. When using adhesives, potting
compounds and coatings, carefully analyze its material composition and do thorough testing of the entire fixture
under High Temperature over Life (HTOL) conditions.
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330 ©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved. 26
RoHS
COMPLIANT
Table 4. List of commonly used chemicals that will damage the silicone overcoat of LUXEON Z ES.
Avoid using any of these chemicals in the housing that contains the LED package.
CHEMICAL NAME NORMALLY USED AS
Hydrochloric acid acid
Sulfuric acid acid
Nitric acid acid
Acetic acid acid
Sodium hydroxide alkali
Potassium hydroxide alkali
Ammonia alkali
MEK (Methyl Ethyl Ketone) solvent
MIBK (Methyl Isobutyl Ketone) solvent
Toluene solvent
Xylene solvent
Benzene solvent
Gasoline solvent
Mineral spirits solvent
Dichloromethane solvent
Tetracholorometane solvent
Castor oil oil
Lard oil
Linseed oil oil
Petroleum oil
Silicone oil oil
Halogenated hydrocarbons
(containing F, Cl, Br elements) misc
Rosin flux solder flux
Acrylic tape adhesive
OLUMILEDS
©2015 Lumileds Holding B.V. All rights reserved.
LUXEON is a registered trademark of the Lumileds Holding B.V.
in the United States and other countries.
lumileds.com
Neither Lumileds Holding B.V. nor its affiliates shall be liable for any kind of loss of data or any
other damages, direct, indirect or consequential, resulting from the use of the provided
information and data. Although Lumileds Holding B.V. and/or its affiliates have attempted to
provide the most accurate information and data, the materials and services information and data
are provided “as is,” and neither Lumileds Holding B.V. nor its affiliates warrants or guarantees
the contents and correctness of the provided information and data. Lumileds Holding B.V. and its
affiliates reserve the right to make changes without notice. You as user agree to this disclaimer
and user agreement with the download or use of the provided materials, information and data.
AB120 LUXEON Z ES Application Brief 20150330
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