NOIVxSN2000A Datasheet by ON Semiconductor

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© Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2014
December, 2016 Rev. 6
1Publication Order Number:
NOIV1SN2000A/D
NOIV1SN2000A,
NOIV2SN2000A
VITA 2000 2.3 Megapixel
92 FPS Global Shutter
CMOS Image Sensor
Features
WUXGA Resolution: 1920 (H) x 1200 (V) Format
4.8 mm x 4.8 mm Pixel Size
2/3 inch Optical Format
Monochrome (SN) or Color (SE)
92 Frames per Second (fps) at Full Resolution (LVDS)
23 Frames per Second (fps) at Full Resolution (CMOS)
On-chip 10-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC)
8-bit or 10-bit Output Mode
Four LVDS Serial Outputs or Parallel CMOS Output
Random Programmable Region of Interest (ROI) Readout
Pipelined and Triggered Global Shutter, Rolling Shutter
On-chip Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) Correction
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
Automatic Exposure Control (AEC)
Phase Locked Loop (PLL)
High Dynamic Range (HDR)
Dual Power Supply (3.3 V and 1.8 V)
0°C to 70°C Operational Temperature Range*
52-pin LCC
520 mW Power Dissipation (LVDS)
385 mW Power Dissipation (CMOS)
These Devices are PbFree and are RoHS Compliant
Applications
Machine Vision
Motion Monitoring
Security
Barcode Scanning (2D)
Description
The VITA 2000 is a 2/3 inch Widescreen Ultra eXtended Graphics Array (WUXGA) CMOS image sensor configurable in HD
format (1920 x 1080) or 4:3 format (1600 X 1200).
The high sensitivity 4.8 mm x 4.8 mm pixels support pipelined and triggered global shutter readout modes and can also be
operated in a low noise rolling shutter mode. In rolling shutter mode, the sensor supports correlated double sampling readout,
reducing noise and increasing the dynamic range.
The sensor has on-chip programmable gain amplifiers and 10-bit A/D converters. The integration time and gain parameters
can be reconfigured without any visible image artifact. Optionally the on-chip automatic exposure control loop (AEC) controls
these parameters dynamically. The image’s black level is either calibrated automatically or can be adjusted by adding a user
programmable offset.
A high level of programmability using a four wire serial peripheral interface enables the user to read out specific regions
of interest. Up to 8 regions can be programmed, achieving even higher frame rates.
The image data interface of the V1-SN/SE part consists of four LVDS lanes, facilitating frame rates up to 92 frames per
second. Each channel runs at 620 Mbps. A separate synchronization channel containing payload information is provided to
facilitate the image reconstruction at the receive end. The V2-SN/SE part provides a parallel CMOS output interface at reduced
frame rate.
The VITA 2000 is packaged in a 52-pin LCC package and is available in a monochrome and color version.
Contact your local ON Semiconductor office for more information.
*Extended temperature range in Q4, 2013
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Figure 1. VITA 2000 Package Photograph
NOIV1SNgflA-QDC ON Semiconductor J Opto Image Sensors V1 = VITA LVDS V2 = VITA CMOS Standard Process N = Mono micro lens E = Color micro lens www.cnsemi.com L Temperature Range D = D263 Glass Package 0 = LCC Additional Functionality 2.0 MegaPixel Resolution
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ORDERING INFORMATION
Part Number Mono/Color Package
NOIV1SN2000A-QDC LVDS Interface mono 52pin LCC
NOIV1SE2000A-QDC LVDS Interface color
NOIV2SN2000A-QDC CMOS Interface mono
NOIV2SE2000A-QDC CMOS Interface color
The V1-SN/SE base part is used to reference the mono and
color versions of the LVDS interface; the V2-SN/SE base
part is used to reference the mono and color versions of the
CMOS interface.
ORDERING CODE DEFINITION
PACKAGE MARK
Following is the mark on the bottom side of the package with Pin 1 to the left center
Line 1: NOI xxxx 2000A where xxxx denotes LVDS (V1) / CMOS (V2), mono micro lens (SN) /color micro lens (SE) option
Line 2: -QDC
Line 3: AWLYYWW
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CONTENTS
Features 1.....................................
Applications 1.................................
Description 1..................................
Ordering Information 2.........................
Ordering Code Definition 2......................
Package Mark 2................................
Contents 3....................................
Specifications 4................................
Overview 8....................................
Operating Modes 12.............................
Sensor Operation 15.............................
Image Sensor Timing and Readout 29..............
Additional Features 32...........................
Data Output Format 41..........................
Register Map 50................................
Package Information 66..........................
Specifications and Useful References 73.............
Silicon Errata 74................................
Acronyms 75...................................
Glossary 76....................................
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SPECIFICATIONS
Key Specifications
Table 1. GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Parameter Specification
Pixel type Global shutter pixel architecture
Shutter type Pipelined and triggered global shutter,
rolling shutter
Frame rate
at full resolution
V1-SN/SE: 92 fps
V2-SN/SE: 23 fps
Master clock V1-SN/SE:
62 MHz when PLL is used,
310 MHz (10-bit) / 248 MHz (8-bit)
when PLL is not used
V2-SN/SE: 62 MHz
Windowing 8 Randomly programmable windows.
Normal, sub-sampled and binned read-
out modes
ADC resolution [1] 10-bit, 8-bit
LVDS outputs V1-SN/SE: 4 data + sync + clock
CMOS outputs V2-SN/SE: 10-bit parallel output,
frame_valid, line_valid, clock
Data rate V1-SN/SE:
4 x 620 Mbps (10-bit)
4 x 496 Mbps (8-bit)
V2-SN/SE: 62 MHz
Power dissipation 520 mW for V1-SN/SE in 10-bit mode
385 mW for V2-SN/SE
Package type 52-pin LCC
Table 2. ELECTROOPTICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Parameter Specification
Active pixels Full Resolution: 1920 (H) x 1200 (V)
Pixel size 4.8 mm x 4.8 mm
Optical format 2/3 inch
Conversion gain 0.072 LSB10/e-
85 mV/e-
Dark noise 2.2 LSB10, 30e- in global shutter
0.9 LSB10, 14e-in rolling shutter
Responsivity at 550 nm 24 LSB10 /nJ/cm2, 4.6 V/lux.s
Parasitic Light
Sensitivity (PLS)
<1/450
Full well charge 13700 e-
Quantum efficiency 53% at 550 nm
Pixel FPN rolling shutter: 0.5 LSB10
global shutter: 1.0 LSB10
PRNU < 2% of signal
MTF 60% @ 630 nm - X-dir & Y-dir
PSNL @ 25°C100 LSB10/s, 1360 e-/s
Dark signal @ 25°C4.5 e-/s, 0.33 LSB10/s
Dynamic range 60 dB in rolling shutter mode
53 dB in global shutter mode
Signal to Noise Ratio
(SNR max)
41 dB
Table 3. RECOMMENDED OPERATING RATINGS (Note 2)
Symbol Description Min Max Units
TJOperating temperature range 0 70 °C
Table 4. ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS (Notes 3 and 4)
Symbol Parameter Min Max Units
ABS (1.8 V supply group) ABS rating for 1.8 V supply group –0.5 2.2 V
ABS (3.3 V supply group) ABS rating for 3.3 V supply group –0.5 4.3 V
TSABS storage temperature range 0 150 °C
ABS storage humidity range at 85°C 85 %RH
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) Human Body Model (HBM): JS0012010 2000 V
Charged Device Model (CDM): JESD22C101 500
LU Latch-up: JESD78 140 mA
Stresses exceeding Maximum Ratings may damage the device. Maximum Ratings are stress ratings only. Functional operation above the
Recommended Operating Conditions is not implied. Extended exposure to stresses above the Recommended Operating Conditions may affect
device reliability.
1. The ADC is 11bit, downscaled to 10bit. The VITA 2000 uses a larger wordlength internally to provide 10bit on the output.
2. Operating ratings are conditions in which operation of the device is intended to be functional.
3. ON Semiconductor recommends that customers become familiar with, and follow the procedures in JEDEC Standard JESD625A. Refer
to Application Note AN52561. Long term exposure toward the maximum storage temperature will accelerate color filter degradation.
4. Caution needs to be taken to avoid dried stains on the underside of the glass due to condensation. The glass lid glue is permeable and can
absorb moisture if the sensor is placed in a high % RH environment.
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Table 5. ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Boldface limits apply for TJ = TMIN to TMAX, all other limits TJ = +30°C. (Notes 5, 6 and 7)
Parameter Description Min Typ Max Units
Power Supply Parameters - V1-SN/SE LVDS
vdd_33 Supply voltage, 3.3 V 3.0 3.3 3.6 V
Idd_33 Current consumption 3.3 V supply 125 mA
vdd_18 Supply voltage, 1.8 V 1.6 1.8 2.0 V
Idd_18 Current consumption 1.8 V supply 60 mA
vdd_pix Supply voltage, pixel 3.0 3.3 3.6 V
Ptot Total power consumption at vdd_33 = 3.3 V, vdd_18 = 1.8 V 300 520 700 mW
Pstby_lp Power consumption in low power standby mode. (See Silicon Errata
on page 74)
50 mW
Popt Power consumption at lower pixel rates Configurable
Power Supply Parameters - V2-SN/SE CMOS
vdd_33 Supply voltage, 3.3 V 3.0 3.3 3.6 V
Idd_33 Current consumption 3.3 V supply 110 mA
vdd_18 Supply voltage, 1.8 V 1.6 1.8 2.0 V
Idd_18 Current consumption 1.8 V supply 10 mA
vdd_pix Supply voltage, pixel 3.0 3.3 3.6 V
Ptot Total power consumption 285 385 500 mW
Pstby_lp Power consumption in low power standby mode. (See Silicon Errata
on page 74)
50 mW
Popt Power consumption at lower pixel rates Configurable
I/O - V2-SN/SE CMOS (JEDEC- JESD8C-01): Conforming to standard/additional specifications and deviations listed
fpardata Data rate on parallel channels (10-bit) 62 Mbps
Cout Output load (only capacitive load) 10 pF
tr Rise time (10% to 90% of input signal) 2.5 4.5 6.5 ns
tf Fall time (10% to 90% of input signal) 2 3.5 5 ns
I/O - V1-SN/SE LVDS (EIA/TIA-644): Conforming to standard/additional specifications and deviations listed
fserdata Data rate on data channels
DDR signaling - 4 data channels, 1 synchronization channel;
620 Mbps
fserclock Clock rate of output clock
Clock output for mesochronous signaling
310 MHz
Vicm LVDS input common mode level 0.3 1.25 2.2 V
Tccsk Channel to channel skew (Training pattern allows per channel skew
correction)
50 ps
V1-SN/SE LVDS Electrical/Interface
fin Input clock rate when PLL used 62 MHz
fin Input clock when LVDS input used 310 MHz
tidc Input clock duty cycle when PLL used 40 50 60 %
tj Input clock jitter 20 ps
fspi SPI clock rate when PLL used at fin = 62 MHz 10 MHz
V2-SN/SE CMOS Electrical/Interface
fin Input clock rate 62 MHz
tj Input clock jitter 20 ps
fspi SPI clock rate at fin = 62 MHz 2.5 MHz
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Table 5. ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Boldface limits apply for TJ = TMIN to TMAX, all other limits TJ = +30°C. (Notes 5, 6 and 7)
Parameter UnitsMaxTypMinDescription
Frame Specifications (V1-SN/SE-LVDS - Global Shutter)
fps Frame rate at full resolution 92 fps
fps_roi1 Xres x Yres = 1920 x 1080 100 fps
fps_roi2 Xres x Yres = 1600 x 1200 105 fps
fps_roi3 Xres x Yres = 1024 x 1024 185 fps
fps_roi4 Xres x Yres = 640 x 480 555 fps
fps_roi5 Xres x Yres = 512 x 512 600 fps
fps_roi6 Xres x Yres = 256 x 256 1730 fps
FOT Frame Overhead Time 45 ms
ROT Row Overhead Time 1.1 ms
fpix Pixel rate (4 channels at 62 Mpix/s) 248 Mpix/s
Frame Specifications (V2-SN/SE CMOS - Global Shutter)
fps Frame rate at full resolution 23 fps
5. All parameters are characterized for DC conditions after thermal equilibrium is established.
6. This device contains circuitry to protect the inputs against damage due to high static voltages or electric fields. However, it is recommended
that normal precautions be taken to avoid application of any voltages higher than the maximum rated voltages to this high impedance circuit.
7. Minimum and maximum limits are guaranteed through test and design.
For recommendations on power supply management
guidelines, refer to application note AN65464: VITA 2000
HSMC Cyclone Reference Board Design Recommenda-
tions.
Color Filter Array
The V1SE and V2SE sensors are processed with a Bayer
RGB color pattern as shown in Figure 2. Pixel (0,0) has a red
filter situated to the bottom left.
Figure 2. Color Filter Array for the Pixel Array
pixel (0;0)
Y
X
Responsivity [win I (WImZ) 1 i Mono i Red i Green i Blue 50% 50% 40% 30% 10% \ 10% Wavelength [mu 1 1000
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Spectral Response Curve
Figure 3. Spectral Response Curve
Note that green pixels on a GreenRed (Green 1) and GreenBlue (Green 2) row have similar responsivity to wavelength
trend as is depicted by the legend “Green”.
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OVERVIEW
Figure 4 and Figure 5 give an overview of the major
functional blocks of the V1-SN/SE and V2-SN/SE sensor
respectively. The system clock is received by the CMOS
clock input. A PLL generates the intenal, high speed, clocks,
which are distributed to the other blocks. Optionally, the
V1-SN/SE can also accept a high speed LVDS clock, in
which case the PLL will be disabled.
The sequencer defines the sensor timing and controls the
image core. The sequencer is started either autonomously
(master mode) or on assertion of an external trigger (slave
mode). The image core contains all pixels and readout
circuits. The column structure selects pixels for readout and
performs correlated double sampling (CDS) or double
sampling (DS). The data comes out sequentially and is fed
into the analog front end (AFE) block. The programmable
gain amplifier (PGA) of the AFE adds the offset and gain.
The output is a fully differential analog signal that goes to the
ADC, where the analog signal is converted to a 10-bit data
stream. Depending on the operating mode, eight or ten bits
are fed into the data formatting block. This block adds
synchronization information to the data stream based on the
frame timing. For the V1-SN/SE version, the data then goes
to the low voltage serial (LVDS) interface block which sends
the data out through the I/O ring. The V2-SN/SE sensor does
not have an LVDS interface but sends out the data through
a 10-bit parallel interface.
On-chip programmability is achieved through the Serial
Peripheral Interface (SPI). See the Register Map on page 50
for register details.
A bias block generates bias currents and voltages for all
analog blocks on the chip. By controlling the bias current,
the speed-versus-power of each block can be tuned. All
biasing programmability is contained in the bias block.
The sensor can automatically control exposure and gain
by enabling the automatic exposure control block (AEC).
This block regulates the integration time along with the
analog and digital gains to reach the desired intensity.
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Block Diagram
Figure 4. Block Diagram V1SN/SE
Pixel Array
(1920x1200)
Analog Front End (AFE)
Data Formatting
Serializers & LVDS Interface
SPI Interface
LVDS Clock
Input
LVDS Interface
8 analog channels
8 x 10 bit
digital channels
4 LVDS Channels
1 LVDS Sync Channel
1 LVDS Clock Channel
4 x 10 bit
digital channels
Row Decoder
Column Structure
Image Core Bias
Image Core
Automatic
Exposure
Control
(AEC)
Clock
Distribution
External Triggers
Reset
CMOS Clock
Input
LVDS ReceiverPLL
Control &
Registers
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Block Diagram
Figure 5. Block Diagram V2SN/SE
Pixel Array
(1920x1200)
Analog Front End (AFE)
Data Formatting
Output MUX
Control &
Registers
SPI Interface
CMOS Interface
8 analog channels
8 x 10 bit
digital channels
10 bit Parallel Data
Frame Valid Indication
Line Valid Indication
4 x 10 bit
digital channels
Row Decoder
Column Structure
Image Core Bias
Image Core
Automatic
Exposure
Control
(AEC)
Clock
Distribution
External Triggers
Reset
CMOS Clock
Input
Image Core
The image core consists of:
Pixel Array
Address Decoders and Row Drivers
Pixel Biasing
The pixel array contains 1920 (H) x 1200 (V) readable
pixels with a pixel pitch of 4.8 mm. Four dummy pixel rows
and columns are placed at every side of the pixel array to
eliminate possible edge effects. The sensor uses a 5T pixel
architecture, which makes it possible to read out the pixel
array in global shutter mode with double sampling (DS), or
in rolling shutter mode with correlated double sampling
(CDS).
The function of the row drivers is to access the image array
line by line, or all lines together, to reset or read the pixel
data. The row drivers are controlled by the on-chip
sequencer and can access the pixel array in global and rolling
shutter modes.
The pixel biasing block guarantees that the data on a pixel
is transferred properly to the column multiplexer when the
row drivers select a pixel line for readout.
Phase Locked Loop
The PLL accepts a (low speed) clock and generates the
required high speed clock. Optionally this PLL can be
bypassed. Typical input clock frequency is 62 MHz.
LVDS Clock Receiver
The LVDS clock receiver receives an LVDS clock signal
and distributes the required clocks to the sensor.
Typical input clock frequency is 310 MHz in 10-bit mode
and 248 MHz in 8-bit mode. The clock input needs to be
terminated with a 100 W resistor.
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Column Multiplexer
All pixels of one image row are stored in the column
sample-and-hold (S/H) stages. These stages store both the
reset and integrated signal levels.
The data stored in the column S/H stages is read out
through 8 parallel differential outputs operating at a
frequency of 31 MHz.
At this stage, the reset signal and integrated signal values
are transferred into an FPN-corrected differential signal.
The column multiplexer also supports read-1-skip-1 and
read-2-skip-2 mode. Enabling this mode can speed up the
frame rate, with a decrease in resolution.
Bias Generator
The bias generator generates all required reference
voltages and bias currents that the on-chip blocks use. An
external resistor of 47 kW, connected between pin
IBIAS_MASTER and gnd_33, is required for the bias
generator to operate properly.
Analog Front End
The AFE contains 8 channels, each containing a PGA and
a 10-bit ADC.
For each of the 8 channels, a pipelined 10-bit ADC is used
to convert the analog image data into a digital signal, which
is delivered to the data formatting block. A black calibration
loop is implemented to ensure that the black level is mapped
to match the correct ADC input level.
Data Formatting
The data block receives data from two ADCs and
multiplexes this data to one data stream. A cyclic
redundancy check (CRC) code is calculated on the passing
data.
A frame synchronization data block is foreseen to transmit
synchronization codes such as frame start, line start, frame
end, and line end indications.
The data block calculates a CRC once per line for every
channel. This CRC code can be used for error detection at the
receiving end.
Serializer and LVDS Interface (V1SN/SE only)
The serializer and LVDS interface block receives the
formatted (10-bit or 8-bit) data from the data formatting
block. This data is serialized and transmitted by the LVDS
output driver.
In 10-bit mode, the maximum output data rate is 620 Mbps
per channel. In 8-bit mode, the maximum output data rate is
496 Mbps per channel.
In addition to the LVDS data outputs, two extra LVDS
outputs are available. One of these outputs carries the output
clock, which is skew aligned to the output data channels. The
second LVDS output contains frame format synchronization
codes to serve system-level image reconstruction.
Output MUX (V2SN/SE only)
The output MUX multiplexes the four data channels to
one channel and transmits the data words using a 10-bit
parallel CMOS interface.
Frame synchronization information is communicated by
means of frame and line valid strobes.
Sequencer
The sequencer:
Controls the image core. Starts and stops integration in
rolling and global shutter modes and control pixel
readout.
Operates the sensor in master or slave mode.
Applies the window settings. Organizes readouts so that
only the configured windows are read.
Controls the column multiplexer and analog core.
Applies gain settings and subsampling modes at the
correct time, without corrupting image data.
Starts up the sensor correctly when leaving standby
mode.
Automatic Exposure Control
The AEC block implements a control system to modulate
the exposure of an image. Both integration time and gains
are controlled by this block to target a predefined
illumination level.
summer R656! ,cnmmon Samp‘e & Hem / Lme Numhev <—> .—. Tm \megranun Time Eurs| Reaunm Time Figure 7. Integration and Readout lor Pipelined Shuner www.cnsemi.com 12
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OPERATING MODES
The VITA 2000 sensor is able to operate in the following
shutter modes:
Global Shutter Mode
Pipelined Global Shutter
- Master
- Slave
Triggered Global Shutter
- Master
- Slave
Rolling Shutter Mode
Global Shutter Mode
In the global shutter mode, light integration takes place on
all pixels in parallel, although subsequent readout is
sequential. Figure 6 shows the integration and readout
sequence for the synchronous shutter. All pixels are light
sensitive at the same period of time. The whole pixel core is
reset simultaneously and after the integration time all pixel
values are sampled together on the storage node inside each
pixel. The pixel core is read out line by line after integration.
Note that the integration and readout can occur in parallel or
sequentially.
Figure 6. Global Shutter Operation
Pipelined Global Shutter
In pipelined global shutter mode, the integration and
readout are done in parallel. Images are continuously read
and integration of frame N is ongoing during readout of the
previous frame N-1. The readout of every frame starts with
a Frame Overhead Time (FOT), during which the analog
value on the pixel diode is transferred to the pixel memory
element. After the FOT, the sensor is read out line per line
and the readout of each line is preceded by the Row
Overhead Time (ROT). Figure 7 shows the exposure and
readout time line in pipelined global shutter mode.
Figure 7. Integration and Readout for Pipelined Shutter
Reset
NExposure Time N Reset
N+1 Exposure Time N+1
Readout Frame N-1 FOTFOT Readout Frame N FOT
Integration Time
Handling
Readout
Handling
ROT Line Readout
FOT FOT
Master
In this operation mode, the integration time is set through
the register interface and the sensor integrates and reads out
the images autonomously. The sensor acquires images
without any user interaction.
Slave
The slave mode adds more manual control to the sensor.
The exposure time registers are ignored in this mode and the
integration time is controlled by an external pin. As soon as
the control pin is asserted, the pixel array goes out of reset
and integration starts. The integration continues until the
external pin is de-asserted by the system. Now, the image is
sampled and the readout is started. Figure 8 shows the
relation between the external trigger signal and the
exposure/readout timing.
NOIV1SN2000A Iniegvaiian Time Resei / ' Handilng ‘ N ‘ Expnsme Time N i i i ‘ Readoul Handimg ‘ FoT J ReadamN 1 r \l \ x, a Figure B. Pipelined Shuner Operated in Slave Mode ‘ FOT ‘ Reaaum N71 ‘ FOT ‘ Figure 9. Triggered Shutter Operated in Master Mode www.cnsemi.com 13
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Figure 8. Pipelined Shutter Operated in Slave Mode
Reset
NExposure Time N Reset
N+1 Exposure T im e N+1
Readout N1 FOTFOT Readout N FOT
Integration Time
Handling
Readout
Handling
ROT Line Readout
External Trigger
FOT FOT
Triggered Global Shutter
In this mode, manual intervention is required to control
both the integration time and the start of readout. After the
integration time, indicated by a user controlled pin, the
image core is read out. After this sequence, the sensor goes
to an idle mode until a new user action is detected.
The three main differences with the pipelined global
shutter mode are
Upon user action, one single image is read.
Integration and readout are done sequentially. However,
the user can control the sensor in such a way that two
consecutive batches are overlapping, that is, having
concurrent integration and readout.
Integration and readout is under user control through an
external pin.
This mode requires manual intervention for every frame.
The pixel array is kept in reset state until requested.
The triggered global mode is also controlled in a master
or slave mode fashion.
Master
In this mode, a rising edge on the synchronization pin is
used to trigger the start of integration and readout. The
integration time is defined by a register setting. The sensor
autonomously integrates during this predefined time, after
which the FOT starts and the image array is readout
sequentially. A falling edge on the synchronization pin does
not have any impact on the readout or integration and
subsequent frames are started again for each rising edge.
Figure 9 shows the relation between the external trigger
signal and the exposure/readout timing.
If a rising edge is applied on the external trigger before the
exposure time and FOT of the previous frame is complete,
it is ignored by the sensor.
Figure 9. Triggered Shutter Operated in Master Mode
Reset
NExposure Time N Reset
N+1 Exposure Time N+1
Readout N-1 FOTFOT Readout N FOT
Integration Time
Handling
Readout
Handling
ROT Line Readout
External Trigger
No effect on falling edge
Register Controlled
FOT FOT
Slave
Integration time control is identical to the pipelined
shutter slave mode. An external synchronization pin
controls the start of integration. When it is de-asserted, the
FOT starts. The analog value on the pixel diode is
transferred to the pixel memory element and the image
readout can start. A request for a new frame is started when
the synchronization pin is asserted again.
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Rolling Shutter Mode
Another shutter mode supported by the sensor is the
rolling shutter mode. The shutter mechanism is an electronic
rolling shutter and the sensor operates in a streaming mode
similar to a video. This mechanism is controlled by the
on-chip sequencer logic. There are two Y pointers. One
points to the row that is to be reset for rolling shutter
operation, the other points to the row to be read out.
Functionally, a row is reset first and selected for read out
sometime later. The time elapsed between these two
operations is the exposure time.
Figure 10. Rolling Shutter Operation
Figure 10 schematically indicates the relative shift of the
integration times of different lines during the rolling shutter
operation. Each row is read and reset in a sequential way.
Each row in a particular frame is integrated for the same
time, but all lines in a frame ‘see’ a different stare time. As
a consequence, fast horizontal moving objects in the field of
view give rise to motion artifacts in the image; this is an
unavoidable property of a rolling shutter.
In rolling shutter mode, the pixel Fixed Pattern Noise
(FPN) is corrected on-chip by using the CDS technique.
After light integration on all pixels in a row is complete, the
storage node in the pixel is reset. Afterwards the integrated
signal is transferred to that pixel storage node. The
difference between the reset level and integrated signal is the
FPN corrected signal. The advantage of this technique,
compared to the DS technique used in the global shutter
modes, is that the reset noise of the pixel storage node is
cancelled. This results in a lower temporal noise level.
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SENSOR OPERATION
Flowchart
Figure 11 shows the sensor operation flowchart. The
sensor can be in six different ‘states’. Every state is indicated
with the oval circle. These states are:
Power off
Low power standby
Standby (1)
Standby (2)
Idle
Running
These states are ordered by power dissipation. In
‘power-off’ state, the power dissipation is minimal; in
‘running’ state the power dissipation is maximal.
On the other hand, the lower the power consumption, the
more actions (and time) are required to put the sensor in
‘running’ state and grab images.
This flowchart allows the trade-off between power saving
and enabling time of the sensor.
Next to the six ‘states’ a set of ‘user actions’, indicated by
arrows, are included in the flowchart. These user actions
make it possible to move from one state to another.
Sensor States
Power Off
In this state, the sensor is inactive. All power supplies are
down and the power dissipation is zero.
Low Power Standby
In low power standby state, all power supplies are on, but
internally every block is disabled. No internal clock is
running (PLL / LVDS clock receiver is disabled).
All register settings are unchanged.
Only a subset of the SPI registers is active for read/write
in order to be able to configure clock settings and leave the
low power standby state. The only SPI registers that should
be touched are the ones required for the ‘Enable Clock
Management’ action described in Enable Clock
Management Part 1 on page 17
Standby (1)
In standby state, the PLL/LVDS clock receiver is running,
but the derived logic clock signal is not enabled.
Standby (2)
In standby state, the derived logic clock signal is running.
All SPI registers are active, meaning that all SPI registers
can be accessed for read or write operations. All other blocks
are disabled.
Idle
In the idle state, all internal blocks are enabled, except the
sequencer block. The sensor is ready to start grabbing
images as soon as the sequencer block is enabled.
Running
In running state, the sensor is enabled and grabbing
images. The sensor can be operated in different
rolling/global master/slave modes.
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Figure 11. Sensor Operation Flowchart
Power Up Sequence
Enable Clock Management - Part 2
(First Pass after Hard Reset)
Low-Power Standby
Required Register
Upload
Standby (2)
Soft Power-Up
Idle
Enable Sequencer
Running Sensor (re-)configuration
(optional)
Disable Sequencer
Soft Power-Down
Disable Clock Management
Part 2
Power Off
Power Down
Sequence
Intermediate Standby
Enable Clock Management - Part 2
(Not First Pass after Hard Reset)
Sensor (re-)configuration
(optional)
Sensor (re-)configuration
(optional)
Assertion of reset_n Pin
Enable Clock Management - Part 1
Poll Lock Indication
(only when PLL is enabled)
Disable Clock Management
Part 1
Standby (1)
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User Actions: Power Up Functional Mode Sequences
Power Up Sequence
Figure 12 shows the power up sequence of the sensor. The
figure indicates that the first supply to ramp-up is the vdd_18
supply, followed by vdd_33 and vdd_pix respectively. It is
important to comply with the described sequence. Any other
supply ramping sequence may lead to high current peaks
and, as consequence, a failure of the sensor power up.
The clock input should start running when all supplies are
stabilized. When the clock frequency is stable, the reset_n
signal can be de-asserted. After a wait period of 10 ms, the
power up sequence is finished and the first SPI upload can
be initiated.
NOTE: The ‘clock input’ can be the CMOS PLL clock
input (clk_pll), or the LVDS clock input
(lvds_clock_inn/p) in case the PLL is bypassed.
Figure 12. Power Up Sequence
reset_n
vdd_18
vdd_33
clock input
vdd_pix
> 10us> 10us> 10us > 10us > 10us
SPI Upload
Enable Clock Management Part 1
The ‘Enable Clock Management’ action configures the
clock management blocks and activates the clock generation
and distribution circuits in a pre-defined way. First, a set of
clock settings must be uploaded through the SPI register.
These settings are dependent on the desired operation mode
of the sensor.
Table 6 shows the SPI uploads to be executed to configure
the sensor for V1-SN/SE 8-bit serial, V1-SN/SE 10-bit
serial, or V2-SN/SE 10-bit parallel mode, with and without
the PLL.
In the serial modes, if the PLL is not used, the LVDS clock
input must be running.
In the V2-SN/SE10-bit parallel mode, the PLL is
bypassed. The clk_pll clock is used as sensor clock.
It is important to follow the upload sequence listed in
Table 6.
Use of Phase Locked Loop
If PLL is used, the PLL is started after the upload of the
SPI registers. The PLL requires (dependent on the settings)
some time to generate a stable output clock. A lock detect
circuit detects if the clock is stable. When complete, this is
flagged in a status register.
NOTE: The lock detect status must not be checked for
the V2-SN/SE sensor.
Check this flag by reading the SPI register. When the flag
is set, the ‘Enable Clock Management- Part 2’ action can be
continued. When PLL is not used, this step can be bypassed
as shown in Figure 11 on page 16.
Table 6. ENABLE CLOCK MANAGEMENT REGISTER UPLOAD PART 1
Upload # Address Data Description
V1-SN/SE 8-bit mode with PLL
120x0000 Monochrome sensor
0x0001 Color sensor
2 32 0x200C Configure clock management
3 20 0x0000 Configure clock management
4 17 0X210F Configure PLL
5 26 0x1180 Configure PLL lock detector
6 27 0xCCBC Configure PLL lock detector
7 8 0x0000 Release PLL soft reset
8 16 0x0003 Enable PLL
V1-SN/SE 8-bit mode without PLL
1 2 0x0000 Monochrome sensor
0x0001 Color sensor
2 32 0x2008 Configure clock management
3 20 0x0001 Enable LVDS clock input
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Table 6. ENABLE CLOCK MANAGEMENT REGISTER UPLOAD PART 1
Upload # DescriptionDataAddress
V1-SN/SE 10-bit mode with PLL
120x0000 Monochrome sensor
0x0001 Color sensor
2 32 0x2004 Configure clock management
3 20 0x0000 Configure clock management
4 17 0x2113 Configure PLL
5 26 0x2280 Configure PLL lock detector
6 27 0x3D2D Configure PLL lock detector
7 8 0x0000 Release PLL soft reset
8 16 0x0003 Enable PLL
V1-SN/SE 10-bit mode without PLL
1 2 0x0000 Monochrome sensor
0x0001 Color sensor
2 32 0x2000 Configure clock management
3 20 0x0001 Enable LVDS clock input
V2-SN/SE 10-bit mode
120x0002 Monochrome sensor parallel mode selection
0x0003 Color sensor parallel mode selection
2 32 0x200C Configure clock management
3 20 0x0000 Configure clock management
4 16 0x0007 Configure PLL bypass mode
Enable Clock Management - Part 2
The next step to configure the clock management consists
of SPI uploads which enables all internal clock distribution.
The required uploads are listed in Table 7. Note that it is
important to follow the upload sequence listed in Table 7.
Table 7. ENABLE CLOCK MANAGEMENT REGISTER UPLOAD PART 2
Upload # Address Data Description
V1-SN/SE 8-bit mode with PLL
1 9 0x0000 Release clock generator soft reset
2 32 0x200E Enable logic clock
3 34 0x0001 Enable logic blocks
V1-SN/SE 8-bit mode without PLL
1 9 0x0000 Release clock generator soft reset
2 32 0x200A Enable logic clock
3 34 0x0001 Enable logic blocks
V1-SN/SE 10-bit mode with PLL
1 9 0x0000 Release clock generator soft reset
2 32 0x2006 Enable logic clock
3 34 0x0001 Enable logic blocks
V1-SN/SE 10-bit mode without PLL
1 9 0x0000 Release clock generator soft reset
2 32 0x2002 Enable logic clock
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Table 7. ENABLE CLOCK MANAGEMENT REGISTER UPLOAD PART 2
Upload # DescriptionDataAddress
3 34 0x0001 Enable logic blocks
V2-SN/SE 10-bit mode
1 9 0x0000 Release clock generator soft reset
2 32 0x200E Enable logic clock
3 34 0x0001 Enable logic blocks
Required Register Upload
In this phase, the ‘reserved’ register settings are uploaded
through the SPI register. Different settings are not allowed
and may cause the sensor to malfunction. The required
uploads are listed in Table 8.
NOTE: This table is subject to change.
Table 8. REQUIRED REGISTER UPLOAD
Upload # Address Data Description
1 41 0x085A Configure image core
2 129[13] 0x0 10-bit mode
0x1 8-bit mode
3 65 0x288B Configure CP biasing
4 66 0x53C6 Configure AFE biasing
5 67 0x0344 Configure MUX biasing
6 68 0x0085 Configure LVDS biasing
7 70 0x4888 Configure reserved register
8 81 0x86A1 Configure reserved register
9 128 0x460F Configure black calibration
10 176 0x00F5 Configure AEC
11 180 0x00FD Configure AEC
12 181 0x0144 Configure AEC
13 218 0x160B Configure sequencer
14 224 0x3E13 Configure sequencer
15 456 0x0386 Configure sequencer
16 447 0x0BF1 Configure sequencer
17 448 0x0BC3 Configure sequencer
Soft Power Up
During the soft power up action, the internal blocks are
enabled and prepared to start processing the image data
stream. This action exists of a set of SPI uploads. The soft
power up uploads are listed in Table 9.
Table 9. SOFT POWER UP REGISTER UPLOADS FOR MODE DEPENDENT REGISTERS
Upload # Address Data Description
V1-SN/SE 8-bit mode with PLL
132 0x200F Enable analog clock distribution
2 10 0x0000 Release soft reset state
3 64 0x0001 Enable biasing block
4 72 0x0203 Enable charge pump
5 40 0x0003 Enable column multiplexer
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Table 9. SOFT POWER UP REGISTER UPLOADS FOR MODE DEPENDENT REGISTERS
Upload # DescriptionDataAddress
6 48 0x0001 Enable AFE
7112 0x0007 Enable LVDS transmitters
V1-SN/SE 8-bit mode without PLL
132 0x200B Enable analog clock distribution
2 10 0x0000 Release soft reset state
3 64 0x0001 Enable biasing block
4 72 0x0203 Enable charge pump
5 40 0x0003 Enable column multiplexer
6 48 0x0001 Enable AFE
7112 0x0007 Enable LVDS transmitters
V1-SN/SE 10-bit mode with PLL
132 0x2007 Enable analog clock distribution
2 10 0x0000 Release soft reset state
3 64 0x0001 Enable biasing block
4 72 0x0203 Enable charge pump
5 40 0x0003 Enable column multiplexer
6 48 0x0001 Enable AFE
7112 0x0007 Enable LVDS transmitters
V1-SN/SE 10-bit mode without PLL
132 0x2003 Enable analog clock distribution
2 10 0x0000 Release soft reset state
3 64 0x0001 Enable biasing block
4 72 0x0203 Enable charge pump
5 40 0x0003 Enable column multiplexer
6 48 0x0001 Enable AFE
7112 0x0007 Enable LVDS transmitters
V2-SN/SE 10-bit mode
132 0x200F Enable analog clock distribution
2 10 0x0000 Release soft reset state
3 64 0x0001 Enable biasing block
4 72 0x0203 Enable charge pump
5 40 0x0003 Enable column multiplexer
6 48 0x0001 Enable AFE
7112 0x0000 Configure I/O
Enable Sequencer
During the ‘Enable Sequenceraction, the frame grabbing
sequencer is enabled. The sensor starts grabbing images in
the configured operation mode. Refer to Sensor States on
page 15 for an overview of the possible operation modes.
The ‘Enable Sequencer’ action consists of a set of register
uploads. The required uploads are listed in Table 10.
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Table 10. ENABLE SEQUENCER REGISTER UPLOAD
Upload # Address Data Description
1 192[0] 0x1 Enable sequencer.
Note that this address contains other configuration bits to select the opera-
tion mode.
User Actions: Functional Modes to Power Down
Sequences
Refer to Silicon Errata on page 74 for standby power
considerations.
Disable Sequencer
During the ‘Disable Sequencer’ action, the frame
grabbing sequencer is stopped. The sensor stops grabbing
images and returns to the idle mode.
The ’Disable Sequenceraction consists of a set of register
uploads. as listed in Table 11.
Table 11. DISABLE SEQUENCER REGISTER UPLOAD
Upload # Address Data Description
1 192[0] 0x0 Disable sequencer.
Note that this address contains other configuration bits to select the opera-
tion mode.
Soft Power Down
During the soft power down action, the internal blocks are
disabled and the sensor is put in standby state to reduce the
current dissipation. This action exists of a set of SPI uploads.
The soft power down uploads are listed in Table 12.
Table 12. SOFT POWER DOWN REGISTER UPLOAD
Upload # Address Data Description
1112 0x0000 Disable LVDS transmitters
2 48 0x0000 Disable AFE
3 40 0x0000 Disable column multiplexer
4 72 0x0200 Disable charge pump
5 64 0x0000 Disable biasing block
6 10 0x0999 Soft reset
Disable Clock Management - Part 2
The ‘Disable Clock Management’ action stops the
internal clocking to further decrease the power dissipation.
This action can be implemented with the SPI uploads as
shown in Table 13.
Table 13. DISABLE CLOCK MANAGEMENT REGISTER UPLOAD PART 2
Upload # Address Data Description
V1-SN/SE 8-bit mode with PLL
134 0x0000 Disable logic blocks
2 32 0x200C Disable logic clock
3 9 0x0009 Soft reset clock generator
V1-SN/SE 8-bit mode without PLL
134 0x0000 Disable logic blocks
2 32 0x2008 Disable logic clock
3 9 0x0009 Soft reset clock generator
V1-SN/SE 10-bit mode with PLL
134 0x0000 Disable logic blocks
2 32 0x2004 Disable logic clock
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Table 13. DISABLE CLOCK MANAGEMENT REGISTER UPLOAD PART 2
Upload # DescriptionDataAddress
3 9 0x0009 Soft reset clock generator
V1-SN/SE 10-bit mode without PLL
134 0x0000 Disable logic blocks
2 32 0x2000 Disable logic clock
3 9 0x0009 Soft reset clock generator
V2-SN/SE 10-bit mode
134 0x0000 Disable logic blocks
2 32 0x200C Disable logic clock
3 9 0x0009 Soft reset clock generator
Disable Clock Management - Part 1
The ‘Disable Clock Management’ action stops the
internal clocking to further decrease the power dissipation.
This action can be implemented with the SPI uploads as
shown in Table 14.
Table 14. DISABLE CLOCK MANAGEMENT REGISTER UPLOAD PART 1
Upload # Address Data Description
116 0x0000 Disable PLL
2 8 0x0099 Soft reset PLL
3 20 0x0000 Configure clock management
Power Down Sequence
Figure 13 illustrates the timing diagram of the preferred
power down sequence. It is important that the sensor is in
reset before the clock input stops running. Otherwise, the
internal PLL becomes unstable and the sensor gets into an
unknown state. This can cause high peak currents.
The same applies for the ramp down of the power
supplies. The preferred order to ramp down the supplies is
first vdd_pix, second vdd_33, and finally vdd_18. Any other
sequence can cause high peak currents.
NOTE: The ‘clock input’ can be the CMOS PLL clock
input (clk_pll), or the LVDS clock input
(lvds_clock_inn/p) in case the PLL is bypassed.
Figure 13. Power Down Sequence
reset_n
vdd_18
vdd_33
clock input
vdd_pix
> 10us > 10us> 10us > 10us
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Sensor Reconfiguration
During the standby, idle, or running state several sensor
parameters can be reconfigured.
Frame Rate and Exposure Time: Frame rate and
exposure time changes can occur during standby, idle,
and running states.
Signal Path Gain: Signal path gain changes can occur
during standby, idle, and running states.
Windowing: Changes with respect to windowing can
occur during standby, idle, and running states. Refer to
Multiple Window Readout on page 32 for more
information.
Subsampling: Changes of the subsampling mode can
occur during standby, idle, and running states. Refer to
Subsampling on page 33 for more information.
Shutter Mode: The shutter mode can only be changed
during standby or idle mode. Reconfiguring the shutter
mode during running state is not supported.
Sensor Configuration
This device contains multiple configuration registers.
Some of these registers can only be configured while the
sensor is not acquiring images (while register 192[0] = 0),
while others can be configured while the sensor is acquiring
images. For the latter category of registers, it is possible to
distinguish the register set that can cause corrupted images
(limited number of images containing visible artifacts) from
the set of registers that are not causing corrupted images.
These three categories are described here.
Static Readout Parameters
Some registers are only modified when the sensor is not
acquiring images. Reconfiguration of these registers while
images are acquired can cause corrupted frames or even
interrupt the image acquisition. Therefore, it is
recommended to modify these static configurations while
the sequencer is disabled (register 192[0] = 0). The registers
shown in Table 15 should not be reconfigured during image
acquisition. A specific configuration sequence applies for
these registers. Refer to the operation flow and startup
description.
Table 15. STATIC READOUT PARAMETERS
Group Addresses Description
Clock generator 32 Configure according to recommendation
Image core 40 Configure according to recommendation
AFE 48 Configure according to recommendation
Bias 64–71 Configure according to recommendation
LVDS 112 Configure according to recommendation
Sequencer mode selection 192 [6:1] Operation modes are:
Rolling shutter enable
triggered_mode
slave_mode
All reserved registers Keep reserved registers to their default state, unless otherwise described in the
recommendation
Dynamic Configuration Potentially Causing Image
Artifacts
The category of registers as shown in Table 16 consists of
configurations that do not interrupt the image acquisition
process, but may lead to one or more corrupted images
during and after the re-configuration. A corrupted image is
an image containing visible artifacts. A typical example of
a corrupted image is an image which is not uniformly
exposed.
The effect is transient in nature and the new configuration
is applied after the transient effect.
Table 16. DYNAMIC CONFIGURATION POTENTIALLY CAUSING IMAGE ARTIFACTS
Group Addresses Description
Black level configuration 128–129
197[8]
Reconfiguration of these registers may have an impact on the black-level calibration
algorithm. The effect is a transient number of images with incorrect black level com-
pensation.
Sync codes 129[13]
130–135
Incorrect sync codes may be generated during the frame in which these registers
are modified.
Datablock test configurations 144–150 Modification of these registers may generate incorrect test patterns during
a transient frame.
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Dynamic Readout Parameters
It is possible to reconfigure the sensor while it is acquiring
images. Frame-related parameters are internally
resynchronized to frame boundaries, such that the modified
parameter does not affect a frame that has already started.
However, there can be restrictions to some registers as
shown in Table 17. Some reconfiguration may lead to one
frame being blanked. This happens when the modification
requires more than one frame to settle. The image is blanked
out and training patterns are transmitted on the data and sync
channels.
Table 17. DYNAMIC READOUT PARAMETERS
Group Addresses Description
Subsampling/binning 192[7]
192[8]
Subsampling or binning is synchronized to a new frame start.
Black lines 197 Reconfiguration of these parameters causes one frame to be blanked out in rolling shutter
operation mode, as the reset pointers need to be recalculated for the new frame timing.
No blanking in global shutter mode
Dummy lines 198 Reconfiguration of these parameters causes one frame to be blanked out in rolling shutter
operation mode, as the reset pointers need to be recalculated for the new frame timing.
No blanking in global shutter mode.
ROI configuration 195
256–279
Optionally, it is possible to blank out one frame after reconfiguration of the active ROI in
rolling shutter mode. Therefore, register 206[8] must be asserted (blank_roi_switch config-
uration).
A ROI switch is only detected when a new window is selected as the active window
(reconfiguration of register 195). Reconfiguration of the ROI dimension of the active win-
dow does not lead to a frame blank and can cause a corrupted image.
Exposure reconfiguration 199-203 Exposure reconfiguration does not cause artifact. However, a latency of one frame is
observed unless reg_seq_exposure_sync_mode is set to ‘1’ in triggered global mode
(master).
Gain reconfiguration 204 Gains are synchronized at the start of a new frame. Optionally, one frame latency can be
incorporated to align the gain updates to the exposure updates (refer to register 199[13] -
gain_lat_comp).
Freezing Active Configurations
Though the readout parameters are synchronized to frame
boundaries, an update of multiple registers can still lead to
a transient effect in the subsequent images, as some
configurations require multiple register uploads. For
example, to reconfigure the exposure time in master global
mode, both the fr_length and exposure registers need to be
updated. Internally, the sensor synchronizes these
configurations to frame boundaries, but it is still possible
that the reconfiguration of multiple registers spans over two
or even more frames. To avoid inconsistent combinations,
freeze the active settings while altering the SPI registers by
disabling synchronization for the corresponding
functionality before reconfiguration. When all registers are
uploaded, re-enable the synchronization. The sensors
sequencer then updates its active set of registers and uses
them for the coming frames. The freezing of the active set
of registers can be programmed in the sync_configuration
registers, which can be found at the SPI address 206.
Figure 14 shows a re-configuration that does not use the
sync_configuration option. As depicted, new SPI
configurations are synchronized to frame boundaries.
With sync_configuration = ‘1’. Configurations are
synchronized to the frame boundaries.
Figure 15 shows the usage of the sync_configuration
settings. Before uploading a set of registers, the
corresponding sync_configuration is de-asserted. After the
upload is completed, the sync_configuration is asserted
again and the sensor resynchronizes its set of registers to the
coming frame boundaries. As seen in the figure, this ensures
that the uploads performed at the end of frame N+2 and the
start of frame N+3 become active in the same frame (frame
N+4).
Figure 14. Frame Synchronization of Configurations (no freezing)
Frame NFrame N+1 Frame N+2 Frame N+3 Frame N+4
Time Line
SPI Registers
Active Registers
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Figure 15. Reconfiguration Using Sync_configuration
Frame NFrame N+1 Frame N+2 Frame N+3 Frame N+4
Time Line
sync_configuration
SPI Registers
Active Registers
This configuration is not taken into
account as sync_register is inactive.
NOTE: SPI updates are not taken into account while sync_configuration is inactive. The active configuration is frozen
for the sensor. Table 18 lists the several sync_configuration possibilities along with the respective registers being
frozen.
Table 18. ALTERNATE SYNC CONFIGURATIONS
Group Affected Registers Description
sync_rs_x_length rs_x_length Update of x-length configuration (rolling shutter only) is not synchronized at start of
frame when ‘0’. The sensor continues with its previous configurations.
sync_black_lines black_lines Update of black line configuration is not synchronized at start of frame when ‘0’. The
sensor continues with its previous configurations.
sync_dummy_lines dummy_lines Update of dummy line configuration is not synchronized at start of frame when ‘0’. The
sensor continues with its previous configurations.
sync_exposure mult_timer
fr_length
exposure
Update of exposure configurations is not synchronized at start of frame when ‘0’. The
sensor continues with its previous configurations.
sync_gain mux_gainsw
afe_gain
Update of gain configurations is not synchronized at start of frame when ‘0’. The sen-
sor continues with its previous configurations.
sync_roi roi_active0[7:0]
subsampling
binning
Update of active ROI configurations is not synchronized at start of frame when ‘0’. The
sensor continues with its previous configurations.
Note: The window configurations themselves are not frozen. Re-configuration of act-
ive windows is not gated by this setting.
Window Configuration
Global Shutter Mode
Up to 8 windows can be defined in global shutter mode
(pipelined or triggered). The windows are defined by
registers 256 to 279. Each window can be activated or
deactivated separately using register 195. It is possible to
reconfigure the windows while the sensor is acquiring
images. It is also possible to reconfigure the inactive
windows or to switch between predefined windows.
One can switch between predefined windows by
reconfiguring the register 195. This way a minimum number
of registers need to be uploaded when it is necessary to
switch between two or more sets of windows. As an example
of this, scanning the scene at higher frame rates using
multiple windows and switching to full frame capture when
the object is traced. Switching between the two modes only
requires an upload of one register.
Rolling Shutter Mode
In rolling shutter mode it is not possible to read multiple
windows. Do not activate more than one window (register
195). However, it is possible to configure more than one
window and dynamically switch between the different
window configurations. Note that switching between two
different windows might result in a corrupted frame. This is
inherent in the rolling shutter mechanism, where each line
must be reset sequentially before being read out. This
corrupted window can be blanked out by setting register
206[8]. In this case, a dead time is noted on the LVDS
interface when the window-switch occurs in the sensor.
During this blank out, training patterns are sent out on the
data and sync channels for the duration of one frame.
Black Calibration
The sensor automatically calibrates the black level for
each frame. Therefore, the device generates a configurable
number of electrical black lines at the start of each frame.
The desired black level in the resulting output interface can
be configured and is not necessarily targeted to ‘0’.
Configuring the target to a higher level yields some
information on the left side of the black level distribution,
while the other end of the distribution tail is clipped to ‘0’
when setting the black level target to ‘0’.
The black level is calibrated for the 8 columns contained
in one kernel. Configurable parameters for the black-level
algorithm are listed in Table 19.
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Table 19. CONFIGURABLE PARAMETERS FOR BLACK LEVEL ALGORITHM
Group Addresses Description
Black Line Generation
197[7:0] black_lines This register configures the number of black lines that are generated at the start of a
frame. At least one black line must be generated. The maximum number is 255.
Note: When the automatic black-level calibration algorithm is enabled, make sure that this
register is configured properly to produce sufficient black pixels for the black-level filtering.
The number of black pixels generated per line is dependent on the operation mode and
window configurations:
Global Shutter - Each black line contains 240 kernels.
Rolling Shutter - As the line length is fundamental for rolling shutter operation, the length of
a black line is defined by the active window.
197[8] gate_first_line When asserting this configuration, the first black line of the frame is blanked out and is not
used for black calibration. It is recommended to enable this functionality, because the first
line can have a different behavior caused by boundary effects. When enabling, the number
of black lines must be set to at least two in order to have valid black samples for the calib-
ration algorithm.
Black Value Filtering
129[0] auto_blackcal_enable Internal black-level calibration functionality is enabled when set to ‘1’. Required black level
offset compensation is calculated on the black samples and applied to all image pixels.
When set to ‘0’, the automatic black-level calibration functionality is disabled. It is possible
to apply an offset compensation to the image pixels, which is defined by the registers
129[10:1].
Note: Black sample pixels are not compensated; the raw data is sent out to provide ex-
ternal statistics and, optionally, calibrations.
129[9:1] blackcal_offset Black calibration offset that is added or subtracted to each regular pixel value when au-
to_blackcal_enable is set to ‘0’. The sign of the offset is determined by register 129[10]
(blackcal_offset_dec).
Note: All channels use the same offset compensation when automatic black calibration is
disabled.
The calculated black calibration factors are frozen when this register is set to 0x1FF
(all‘1’) in auto calibration mode. Any value different from 0x1FF reenables the black
calibration algorithm. This freezing option can be used to prevent eventual frame to frame
jitter on the black level as the correction factors are recalculated every frame. It is recom-
mended to enable the black calibration regularly to compensate for temperature changes.
129[10] blackcal_offset_dec Sign of blackcal_offset. If set to ‘0’, the black calibration offset is added to each pixel. If set
to ‘1’, the black calibration offset is subtracted from each pixel.
This register is not used when auto_blackcal_enable is set to ‘1’.
128[10:8] black_samples The black samples are low-pass filtered before being used for black level calculation. The
more samples are taken into account, the more accurate the calibration, but more samples
require more black lines, which in turn affects the frame rate.
The effective number of samples taken into account for filtering is 2^ black_samples.
Note: An error is reported by the device if more samples than available are requested
(refer to register 136).
Black Level Filtering Monitoring
136 blackcal_error0 An error is reported by the device if there are requests for more samples than are available
(each bit corresponding to one data path). The black level is not compensated correctly if
one of the channels indicates an error. There are three possible methods to overcome this
situation and to perform a correct offset compensation:
Increase the number of black lines such that enough samples are generated at the
cost of increasing frame time (refer to register 197).
Relax the black calibration filtering at the cost of less accurate black level determina-
tion (refer to register 128).
Disable automatic black level calibration and provide the offset via SPI register upload.
Note that the black level can drift in function of the temperature. It is thus recommended
to perform the offset calibration periodically to avoid this drift.
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Serial Peripheral Interface
The sensor configuration registers are accessed through
an SPI. The SPI consists of four wires:
sck: Serial Clock
ss_n: Active Low Slave Select
mosi: Master Out, Slave In, or Serial Data In
miso: Master In, Slave Out, or Serial Data Out
The SPI is synchronous to the clock provided by the
master (sck) and asynchronous to the sensor’s system clock.
When the master wants to write or read a sensors register,
it selects the chip by pulling down the Slave Select line
(ss_n). When selected, data is sent serially and synchronous
to the SPI clock (sck).
Figure 16 shows the communication protocol for read and
write accesses of the SPI registers. The VITA 2000 sensor
uses 9-bit addresses and 16-bit data words.
Data driven by the system is colored blue in Figure 16,
while data driven by the sensor is colored yellow. The data
in grey indicates high-Z periods on the miso interface. Red
markers indicate sampling points for the sensor (mosi
sampling); green markers indicate sampling points for the
system (miso sampling during read operations).
The access sequence is:
1. Select the sensor for read or write by pulling down
the ss_n line.
2. One SPI clock cycle after selecting the sensor, the
9-bit data is transferred, most significant bit first.
The sck clock is passed through to the sensor as
indicated in Figure 16. The sensor samples this
data on a rising edge of the sck clock (mosi needs
to be driven by the system on the falling edge of
the sck clock).
3. The tenth bit sent by the master indicates the type
of transfer: high for a write command, low for a
read command.
4. Data transmission:
- For write commands, the master continues
sending the 16-bit data, most significant bit first.
- For read commands, the sensor returns the
requested address on the miso pin, most significant
bit first. The miso pin must be sampled by the
system on the falling edge of sck (assuming
nominal system clock frequency and maximum
10 MHz SPI frequency).
5. When data transmission is complete, the system
deselects the sensor one clock period after the last
bit transmission by pulling ss_n high.
Maximum frequency for the SPI depends on the input
clock and type of sensor. The frequency is 1/6th of the PLL
input clock or 1/30th (in 10-bit mode) and 1/24th (in 8-bit
mode) of the LVDS input clock frequency.
At nominal input frequency (62 Mhz / 310 MHz /
248 MHz), the maximum frequency for the SPI is 10 MHz.
Bursts of SPI commands can be issued by leaving at least
two SPI clock periods between two register uploads.
Deselect the chip between the SPI uploads by pulling the
ss_n pin high.
Figure 16. SPI Read and Write Timing Diagram
.. A1 A0 `1'A8 D15 D14 .. .. .. .. D1 D0
sck
mo si
ss_n
SP I WRITE
miso
A7 .. ..
.. A1 A0 `0'A8
sck
mo si
ss_n
SPI REA D
miso
A7 .. ..
D15 D14 .. .. .. .. D1 D0
ts_mosi th_mosi
t_sssck t_sc ks s
ts _mi so th_mi so
t_sc ks s
t_sssck
ts _mos i th_mosi
ts ck
ts ck
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Table 20. SPI TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Group Addresses Description Units
tsck sck clock period 100 (*) ns
tsssck ss_n low to sck rising edge tsck ns
tsckss sck falling edge to ss_n high tsck ns
ts_mosi Required setup time for mosi 20 ns
th_mosi Required hold time for mosi 20 ns
ts_miso Setup time for miso tsck/2-10 ns
th_miso Hold time for miso tsck/2-20 ns
tspi Minimal time between two consecutive SPI accesses (not shown in figure) 2 x tsck ns
*Value indicated is for nominal operation. The maximum SPI clock frequency depends on the sensor configuration (operation mode, input clock).
tsck is defined as 1/fSPI. See text for more information on SPI clock frequency restrictions.
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IMAGE SENSOR TIMING AND READOUT
The following sections describe the configurations for
single slope reset mechanism. Dual and triple slope handling
during global shutter operation is similar to the single slope
operation. Extra integration time registers are available.
Global Shutter Mode
Pipelined Global Shutter (Master)
The integration time is controlled by the registers
fr_length[15:0] and exposure[15:0]. The mult_timer
configuration defines the granularity of the registers
reset_length and exposure. It is read as number of system
clock cycles (16.129 ns nominal at 62 MHz) for the
V1-SN/SE version and 15.5 MHz cycles (64.516 ns
nominal) for the V2-SN/SE version.
The exposure control for (Pipelined) Global Master mode
is depicted in Figure 17.
The pixel values are transferred to the storage node during
FOT, after which all photo diodes are reset. The reset state
remains active for a certain time, defined by the reset_length
and mult_timer registers, as shown in the figure. Note that
meanwhile the image array is read out line by line. After this
reset period, the global photodiode reset condition is
abandoned. This indicates the start of the integration or
exposure time. The length of the exposure time is defined by
the registers exposure and mult_timer.
NOTE: The start of the exposure time is synchronized to
the start of a new line (during ROT) if the
exposure period starts during a frame readout.
As a consequence, the effective time during
which the image core is in a reset state is
extended to the start of a new line.
Make sure that the sum of the reset time and exposure
time exceeds the time required to readout all lines. If
this is not the case, the exposure time is extended until
all (active) lines are read out.
Alternatively, it is possible to specify the frame time
and exposure time. The sensor automatically calculates
the required reset time. This mode is enabled by the
fr_mode register. The frame time is specified in the
register fr_length.
Figure 17. Integration Control for (Pipelined) Global Shutter Mode (Master)
Reset Integrating Reset Integrating
Image Array Global Reset
Readout
FOT
FOT FOT
FOT
FOT
FOT
reset_length
x
mult_timer
Frame N Frame N+1
Exposure State
= ROT
= Readout
= Readout Dummy Line (blanked)
exposure
x
mult_timer
Triggered Global Shutter (Master)
In master triggered global mode, the start of integration
time is controlled by a rising edge on the trigger0 pin. The
exposure or integration time is defined by the registers
exposure and mult_timer, as in the master pipelined global
mode. The fr_length configuration is not used. This
operation is graphically shown in Figure 18.
Figure 18. Exposure Time Control in Triggered Shutter Mode (Master)
Reset Integrating Reset Integrating
Image Array Global Reset
Readout
FOT
FOT FOT
FOT
FOT
FOT
exposure x mult_timer
Frame N Frame N+1
Exposure State
(No effect on falling edge)
trigger0
= ROT
= Readout
= Readout Dummy Line (blanked)
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Notes:
The falling edge on the trigger pin does not have any
impact. Note however the trigger must be asserted for
at least 100 ns.
The start of the exposure time is synchronized to the
start of a new line (during ROT) if the exposure period
starts during a frame readout. As a consequence, the
effective time during which the image core is in a reset
state is extended to the start of a new line.
If the exposure timer expires before the end of readout,
the exposure time is extended until the end of the last
active line.
The trigger pin needs to be kept low during the FOT.
The monitor pins can be used as a feedback to the
FPGA/controller (eg. use monitor0, indicating the very
first line when monitor_select = 0x5 a new trigger can
be initiated after a rising edge on monitor0).
Triggered Global Shutter (Slave)
Exposure or integration time is fully controlled by means
of the trigger pin in slave mode. The registers fr_length,
exposure and mult_timer are ignored by the sensor.
A rising edge on the trigger pin indicates the start of the
exposure time, while a falling edge initiates the transfer to
the pixel storage node and readout of the image array. In
other words, the high time of the trigger pin indicates the
integration time, the period of the trigger pin indicates the
frame time.
The use of the trigger during slave mode is shown in
Figure 19.
Notes:
The registers exposure, fr_length, and mult_timer are
not used in this mode.
The start of exposure time is synchronized to the start
of a new line (during ROT) if the exposure period starts
during a frame readout. As a consequence, the effective
time during which the image core is in a reset state is
extended to the start of a new line.
If the trigger is de-asserted before the end of readout,
the exposure time is extended until the end of the last
active line.
The trigger pin needs to be kept low during the FOT.
The monitor pins can be used as a feedback to the
FPGA/controller (eg. use monitor0, indicating the very
first line when monitor_select = 0x5 a new trigger can
be initiated after a rising edge on monitor0).
Figure 19. Exposure Time Control in GlobalSlave Mode
Reset Integrating Reset Integrating
Image Array Global Reset
Readout
FOT
FOT FOT
FOT
FOT
FOT
Frame N Frame N+1
Exposure State
trigger0
= ROT
= Readout
= Readout Dummy Line (blanked)
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Rolling Shutter Mode
The exposure time during rolling shutter mode is always
an integer multiple of line-times. The exposure time is
defined by the register exposure and expressed in number of
lines. The register fr_length and mult_timer are not used in
this mode.
The maximum exposure time is limited by the frame time.
It is possible to increase the exposure time at the cost of the
frame rate by adding so called dummy lines. A dummy line
lasts for the same time as a regular line, but no pixel data is
transferred to the system. The number of dummy lines is
controlled by the register dummy_lines. The rolling shutter
exposure mechanism is graphically shown in Figure 20.
Figure 20. Integration Control in Rolling Shutter Mode
Note:
The duration of one line is the sum of the ROT and the time
required to read out one line (depends on the number of
active kernels in the window). Optionally, this readout time
can be extended by the configuration rs_x_length. This
register, expressed in number of periods of the logic clock
(16.129 ns for the V1-SN/SE version and 64.516 ns for the
V2-SN/SE version), determines the length of the x-readout.
However, the minimum for rs_x_length is governed by the
window size (x-size).
It is clear that when the number of rows and/or the length
of a row are reduced (by windowing or subsampling), the
frame time decreases and consequently the frame rate
increases.
To be able to artificially increase the frame time, it is
possible to:
add dummy clock cycles to a row time
add dummy rows to the frame
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Multiple Window Readout
The VITA 2000 sensor supports multiple window
readout, which means that only the user-selected Regions Of
Interest (ROI) are read out. This allows limiting data output
for every frame, which in turn allows increasing the frame
rate.
In global shutter mode, up to eight ROIs can be
configured.
In rolling shutter mode, only a single ROI is supported.
All multiple windowing features described further in
this section are only valid for global shutter mode.
Window Configuration
Figure 21 shows the four parameters defining a region of
interest (ROI).
Figure 21. Region of Interest Configuration
1200 pixels
1920 pixels
y-start
y-end
x-start x-end
ROI 0
xstart[7:0]
x-start defines the x-starting point of the desired window.
The sensor reads out 8 pixels in one single clock cycle. As
a consequence, the granularity for configuring the x-start
position is also 8 pixels for no sub sampling. The value
configured in the x-start register is multiplied by 8 to find the
corresponding column in the pixel array.
x-end[7:0]
This register defines the window end point on the x-axis.
Similar to x-start, the granularity for this configuration is
one kernel. x-end needs to be larger than x-start.
y-start[9:0]
The starting line of the readout window. The granularity
of this setting is one line, except with color sensors where it
needs to be an even number.
y-end[9:0]
The end line of the readout window. y-end must be
configured larger than y-start. This setting has the same
granularity as the y-start configuration.
Up to eight windows can be defined, possibly (partially)
overlapping, as illustrated in Figure 22.
Figure 22. Overlapping Multiple Window
Configuration
1200 pixels
1920 pixels
y0_start
y1_start
y0_end
y1_end
x0_start
x1_start
x0_end
x1_end
ROI 0
ROI 1
The sequencer analyses each line that need to be read out
for multiple windows.
Restrictions
The following restrictions for each line are assumed for
the user configuration:
Windows are ordered from left to right, based on their
xstart address:
x_start_roi(i) x_start_roi(j) ANDv
x_end_roi(i) x_end_roi(j)v
Where j i>
Processing Multiple Windows
The sequencer control block houses two sets of counters
to construct the image frame. As previously described, the
y-counter indicates the line that needs to be read out and is
incremented at the end of each line. For the start of the frame,
it is initialized to the y-start address of the first window and
it runs until the y-end address of the last window to be read
out. The last window is configured by the configuration
registers and it is not necessarily window #7.
The x-counter starts counting from the x-start address of
the window with the lowest ID which is active on the
addressed line. Only windows for which the current
y-address is enclosed are taken into account for scanning.
Other windows are skipped.
read akxp read 5ka pwxe‘ mm x pwxe‘ (0:0)
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Figure 23. Scanning the Image Array with Five
Windows
ROI 0
ROI 1
ROI 4
ys ROI 3
ROI 2
Figure 23 illustrates a practical example of a configuration
with five windows. The current position of the read pointer
(ys) is indicated by a red line crossing the image array. For
this position of the read pointer, three windows need to be
read out. The initial start position for the x-kernel pointer is
the x-start configuration of ROI1. Kernels are scanned up to
the ROI3 x-end position. From there, the x-pointer jumps to
the next window, which is ROI4 in this illustration. When
reaching ROI4’s x-end position, the read pointer is
incremented to the next line and xs is reinitialized to the
starting position of ROI1.
Notes:
The starting point for the readout pointer at the start of
a frame is the y-start position of the first active window.
The read pointer is not necessarily incremental by one,
but depending on the configuration, it can jump in
y-direction. In Figure 23, this is the case when reaching
the end of ROI0 where the read pointer jumps to the
y-start position of ROI1
The x-pointer starting position is equal to the x-start
configuration of the first active window on the current
line addressed. This window is not necessarily window
#0.
The x-pointer is not necessarily incremented by one
each cycle. At the end of a window it can jump to the
start of the next window.
Each window can be activated separately. There is no
restriction on which window and how many of the 8
windows are active.
Subsampling
Subsampling is used to reduce the image resolution. This
allows increasing the frame rate. Two subsampling modes
are supported: for monochrome sensors (V1/V2-SN) and
color sensors (V1/V2-SE).
Monochrome Sensors
For monochrome sensors, the read-1-skip-1 subsampling
scheme is used. Subsampling occurs both in x- and y-
direction.
Color Sensors
For color sensors, the read-2-skip-2 subsampling scheme
is used. Subsampling occurs both in x- and y- direction.
Figure 24 shows which pixels are read and which ones are
skipped.
Binning
Pixel binning is a technique in which different pixels are
averaged in the analog domain. A 2x1 binning mode is
available on the monochrome sensors (V1/V2-SN). When
enabled, two neighboring pixels in the x-direction are
averaged while line readout happens in a read-1-skip-1
manner.
Pixel binning is not supported on V1/V2-SE.
Figure 24. Subsampling Scheme for Monochrome and Color Sensors
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Multiple Slope Integration
‘Multiple Slope Integration’ is a method to increase the
dynamic range of the sensor. The VITA 2000 supports up to
three slopes.
Figure 25 shows the sensor response to light when the
sensor is used with one slope, two slopes, and three slopes.
The X-axis represents the light power; the Y-axis shows the
sensor output signal. The kneepoint of the multiple slope
curves are adjustable in both position and voltage level.
It is clear that when using only one slope (red curve), the
sensor has the same responsivity over the entire range, until
the output saturates at the point indicated with ‘single slope
saturation point’.
To increase the dynamic range of the sensor, a second
slope is applied in the dual slope mode (green curve). The
sensor has the same responsivity in the black as for a single
slope, but from ‘knee point 1’ on, the sensor is less
responsive to incoming light. The result is that the saturation
point is at a higher light power level.
To further increase the dynamic range, a third slope can be
applied, resulting in a second knee point.
The multiple slope function is only available in global
shutter modes. Refer to section Global Shutter Mode on
page 29 for general notes applicable to the global shutter
operation and more particular to the use of the trigger0 pin.
Figure 25. Multiple Slope Operation
slope 1 slope 2
slope 3
light
output
1023
0
`kneepoint 1'
`kneepoint 2'
single slope
saturation point
dual slope
saturation point
triple slope
saturation point
Required Register Uploads
Multiple slope integration requires the uploads as
described in the following table. Note that these are
cumulative with the required register uploads (Table 8).
These register uploads are subject to change.
Table 21. REQUIRED UPLOADS FOR MULTIPLE
SLOPE INTEGRATION
Upload # Address Data Description
1 421 0x7030 Configure sequencer
2 429 0x7050 Configure sequencer
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Kneepoint Configuration (Multiple Slope Reset Levels)
The kneepoint reset levels are configured by means of
DAC configurations in the image core. The dual slope
kneepoint is configured with the dac_ds configuration,
while the triple slope kneepoint is configured with the
dac_ts register setting. Both are located on address 41.
Multiple Slope Integration in Master Mode (Pipelined or
Triggered)
In master mode, the time stamps for the double and triple
slope resets are configured in a similar way as the exposure
time. They are enabled through the registers
dual_slope_enable and triple_slope_enable and their values
are defined by the registers exposure_ds and exposure_ts.
NOTE: Dual and triple slope sequences must start after
readout of the previous frame is fully completed.
Figure 26 shows the frame timing for pipelined master
mode with dual and triple slope integration and
fr_mode = ‘0’ (fr_length representing the reset length).
In triggered master mode, the start of integration is
initiated by a rising edge on trigger0, while the falling edge
does not have any relevance. Exposure duration and
dual/triple slope points are defined by the registers.
Figure 26. Multiple Slope Operation in Master Mode for fr_mode = ‘0’ (Pipelined)
Slave Mode
In slave mode, the register settings for integration control
are ignored. The user has full control through the trigger0,
trigger1 and trigger2 pins. A falling edge on trigger1
initiates the dual slope reset while a falling edge on trigger2
initiates the triple slope reset sequence. Rising edges on
trigger1 and trigger2 do not have any impact.
NOTE: Dual and triple slope sequences must start after
readout of the previous frame is fully completed.
Figure 27. Multiple Slope Operation in Slave Mode
Reset Integrating
Image Array Global Reset
Readout
FOT
FOT
Frame N
Exposure State
trigger0
= ROT
= Readout
FOTDS TS
IntegratingFOT
trigger1
trigger2
(No effect on
rising edge)
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Black Reference
The sensor reads out one or more black lines at the start of
every new frame. The number of black lines to be generated
is programmable and is minimal equal to 1. The length of the
black lines depends on the operation mode: for Rolling
Shutter mode, the length of the black line is equal to the line
length configured in the active window. For Global Shutter
mode, the sensor always reads out the entire line (240
kernels), independent of window configurations.
The black references are used to perform black calibration
and offset compensation in the data channels. The raw black
pixel data is transmitted over the usual output interface,
while the regular image data is compensated (can be
bypassed).
On the output interface, black lines can be seen as a
separate window, however without Frame Start and Ends
(only Line Start/End). The Sync code following the Line
Start and Line End indications (“window ID”) contains the
active window number for Rolling Shutter operation, while
it is 0 for Snapshot Shutter operation. Black reference data
is classified by a BL code.
Signal Path Gain
Analog Gain Stages
Two gain steps are available in the analog data path to
apply gain to the analog signal before it is digitized. The gain
amplifier can apply a gain of 1x to 8x to the analog signal.
The moment a gain re-configuration is applied and
becomes valid can be controlled by the gain_lat_comp
configuration.
With ‘gain_lat_comp’ set to ‘0’, the new gain
configurations are applied from the very next frame.
With ‘gain_lat_comp’ set to ‘1’, the new gain settings are
postponed by one extra frame. This feature is useful when
exposure time and gain are reconfigured together, as an
exposure time update always has one frame latency.
Table 22. SIGNAL PATH GAIN STAGES
(Analog Gain Stages)
gain_stage1 Gain
Stage 1
gain_stage2 Gain
Stage 2
GAIN to-
tal
0x2 1.00 0xF 1.00 1.00
0x2 1.00 0x7 1.14 1.14
0x2 1.00 0x3 1.33 1.33
0x2 1.00 0x5 1.60 1.60
0x2 1.00 0x1 2.00 2.00
0x1 2.00 0x7 1.14 2.29
0x1 2.00 0x3 1.33 2.67
0x1 2.00 0x5 1.60 3.20
0x1 2.00 0x1 2.00 4.00
0x1 2.00 0x6 2.67 5.33
0x1 2.00 0x2 4.00 8.00
Digital Gain Stage
The digital gain stage allows fine gain adjustments on the
digitized samples. The gain configuration is an absolute 5.7
unsigned number (5 digits before and 7 digits after the
decimal point).
Automatic Exposure Control
The exposure control mechanism has the shape of a
general feedback control system. Figure 28 shows the high
level block diagram of the exposure control loop.
Figure 28. Automatic Exposure Control Loop
AEC
Statistics
AEC
Filter
AEC
Enforcer
Requested Gain
Changes
Total Gain
Integration Time
Analog Gain (Coarse Steps)
Requested Illumination Level
(Target)
Digital Gain (Fine Steps)
Image Capture
Three main blocks can be distinguished:
The statistics block compares the average of the current
image’s samples to the configured target value for the
average illumination of all pixels
The relative gain change request from the statistics
block is filtered in the time domain (low pass filter)
before being integrated. The output of the filter is the
total requested gain in the complete signal path.
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The enforcer block accepts the total requested gain and
distributes this gain over the integration time and gain
stages (both analog and digital)
The automatic exposure control loop is enabled by
asserting the aec_enable configuration in register 160.
NOTE: Dual and Triple slope integration is not
supported in conjunction with the AEC.
AEC Statistics Block
The statistics block calculates the average illumination of
the current image. Based on the difference between the
calculated illumination and the target illumination the
statistics block requests a relative gain change.
Statistics Subsampling and Windowing
For average calculation, the statistics block will
sub-sample the current image or windows by taking every
fourth sample into account. Note that only the pixels read out
through the active windows are visible for the AEC. In the
case where multiple windows are active, the samples will be
selected from the total samples. Samples contained in a
region covered by multiple (overlapping) window will be
taking into account only once.
It is possible to define an AEC specific sub-window on
which the AEC will calculate it’s average. For instance, the
sensor can be configured to read out a larger frame, while the
illumination is measured on a smaller region of interest, e.g.
center weighted.
Table 23. AEC SAMPLE SELECTION
Register Name Description
192[10] roi_aec_en-
able
When 0x0, all active windows are se-
lected for statistics calculation.
When 0x1, the AEC samples are
selected from the active pixels con-
tained in the region of interest defined
by roi_aec
253-255 roi_aec These registers define a window from
which the AEC samples will be selec-
ted when roi_aec_enable is asserted.
Configuration is similar to the regular
region of interests.
The intersection of this window with
the active windows define the selec-
ted pixels. It is important that this win-
dow at least overlaps with one or
more active windows.
Important note for rolling shutter operation: a minimum
of 4 dummy lines is required when using the automatic
exposure controller.
Target Illumination
The target illumination value is configured by means of
register desired_intensity.
Table 24. AEC TARGET ILLUMINATION
CONFIGURATION
Register Name Description
161[9:0] desired_in
tensity
Target intensity value, on 10bit scale.
For 8bit mode, target value is con
figured on desired_intensity[9:2]
Color Sensor
The weight of each color can be configured for color
sensors by means of scale factors. Note these scale factor are
only used to calculate the statistics in order to compensate
for (off-chip) white balancing and/or color matrices. The
pixel values itself are not modified.
The scale factors are configured as 3.7 unsigned numbers
(0x80 = unity).
Table 25. COLOR SCALE FACTORS
Register Name Description
162[9:0] red_scale_factor Red scale factor for AEC statist-
ics
163[9:0] green1_scale_fa-
ctor
Green1 scale factor for AEC
statistics
164[9:0] green2_scale_fa-
ctor
Green2 scale factor for AEC
statistics
165[9:0] blue_scale_factor Blue scale factor for AEC stat-
istics
Configure these factors to their default value for
monochrome sensors.
AEC Filter Block
The filter block low-pass filters the gain change requests
received from the statistics block.
The filter can be restarted by asserting the restart_filter
configuration of register 160.
AEC Enforcer Block
The enforcer block calculates the four different gain
parameters, based on the required total gain, thereby
respecting a specific hierarchy in those configurations.
Some (digital) hysteresis is added so that the (analog) sensor
settings don’t need to change too often.
Exposure Control Parameters
The several gain parameters are described below, in the
order in which these are controlled by the AEC for large
adjustments. Small adjustments are regulated by digital gain
only.
Exposure Time
In rolling shutter mode, the exposure time is the time
elapsed between resetting a particular line and reading it out.
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This time is constant for all lines in a frame, lest the image
be non-uniformly exposed. The exposure time is always an
integer multiple of the line time.
In a snapshot shutter mode, the exposure is the time
between the global image array reset de-assertion and the
pixel charge transfer. The granularity of the integration time
steps is configured by the mult_timer register.
NOTE: The exposure_time register is ignored when the
AEC is enabled. The register fr_length defines
the frame time and needs to be configured
accordingly.
Analog Gain
The sensor has two analog gain stages, configurable
independently from each other. Typically the AEC shall first
regulate the first stage. Optionally this behavior can be
inverted by setting the amp_pri register.
Digital Gain
The last gain stage is a gain applied on the digitized
samples. The digital gain is represented by a 5.7 unsigned
number (i.e. 7 bits after the decimal point). While the analog
gain steps are coarse, the digital gain stage makes it possible
to achieve very fine adjustments.
AEC Control Range
The control range for each of the exposure parameters can
be pre-programmed in the sensor. Note that for rolling
shutter operation the maximum integration time should not
exceed the number of lines read out (i.e. the sum of black
lines, active window-defined lines and dummy lines).
Table 26 lists the relevant registers.
Table 26. MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM EXPOSURE
CONTROL PARAMETERS
Register Name Description
168[15:0] min_exposure Lower bound for the integration
time applied by the AEC
169[1:0] min_mux_gain Lower bound for the first stage
analog amplifier.
This stage has two configura-
tions with the following approx-
imative gains:
0x0 = 1x
0x1 = 2x
169[3:2] min_afe_gain Lower bound for the second
stage analog amplifier
This stage has four configura-
tions with the following approx-
imative gains:
0x0 = 1.00x
0x1 = 1.33x
0x2 = 2.00x
0x3 = 2.50x
169[15:4] min_digital_gain Lower bound for the digital gain
stage. This configuration spe-
cifies the effective gain in 5.7
unsigned format
170[15:0] max_exposure Upper bound for the integration
time applied by the AEC
171[1:0] max_mux_gain Upper bound for the first stage
analog amplifier.
This stage has two configura-
tions with the following approx-
imative gains:
0x0 = 1x
0x1 = 2x
171[3:2] max_afe_gain Upper bound for the second
stage analog amplifier
This stage has four configura-
tions with the following approx-
imative gains:
0x0 = 1.00x
0x1 = 1.33x
0x2 = 2.00x
0x3 = 2.50x
171[15:4] max_digit-
al_gain
Upper bound for the digital gain
stage. This configuration spe-
cifies the effective gain in 5.7
unsigned format
AEC Update Frequency
As an integration time update has a latency of one frame,
the exposure control parameters are evaluated and updated
every other frame.
NOTE: The gain update latency must be postpone to
match the integration time latency. This is done
by asserting the gain_lat_comp register on
address 204[13].
Exposure Control Status Registers
Configured integration and gain parameters are reported
to the user by means of status registers. The sensor provides
two levels of reporting: the status registers reported in the
AEC address space are updated once the parameters are
recalculated and requested to the internal sequencer. The
status registers residing in the sequencers address space on
the other hand are updated once these parameters are taking
effect on the image readout. The first set shall thus lead the
second set of status registers.
Table 27. EXPOSURE CONTROL STATUS REGISTERS
Register Name Description
AEC Status Registers
184[15:0] total_pixels Total number of pixels taken into
account for the AEC statistics.
186[9:0] average Calculated average illumination lev-
el for the current frame.
187[15:0] exposure AEC calculated exposure.
Note: this parameter is updated at
the frame end.
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188[1:0] mux_gain AEC calculated analog gain (1st
stage)
Note: this parameter is updated at
the frame end.
188[3:2] afe_gain AEC calculated analog gain (2st
stage)
Note: this parameter is updated at
the frame end.
188[15:4] digital_gain AEC calculated digital gain (5.7 un-
signed format)
Note: this parameter is updated at
the frame end.
Sequencer Status Registers
208[15:0] mult_timer mult_timer for current frame (global
shutter only).
Note: this parameter is updated
once it takes effect on the image.
209[15:0] reset_length Image array reset length for the cur-
rent frame (global shutter only).
Note: this parameter is updated
once it takes effect on the image.
210[15:0] exposure Exposure for the current frame.
Note: this parameter is updated
once it takes effect on the image.
211[15:0] exposure_ds Dual slope exposure for the current
frame. Note this parameter is not
controlled by the AEC.
Note: this parameter is updated
once it takes effect on the image.
212[15:0] exposure_ts Triple slope exposure for the cur-
rent frame. Note this parameter is
not controlled by the AEC.
Note: this parameter is updated
once it takes effect on the image.
213[4:0] mux_gainsw 1st stage analog gain for the current
frame.
Note: this parameter is updated
once it takes effect on the image.
213[12:5] afe_gain 2st stage analog gain for the current
frame.
Note: this parameter is updated
once it takes effect on the image.
214[11:0] db_gain Digital gain configuration for the
current frame (5.7 unsigned for-
mat).
Note: this parameter is updated
once it takes effect on the image.
214[12] dual_slope Dual slope configuration for the cur-
rent frame
Note 1: this parameter is updated
once it takes effect on the image.
Note 2: This parameter is not con-
trolled by the AEC.
214[13] triple_slope Triple slope configuration for the
current frame.
Note 1: this parameter is updated
once it takes effect on the image.
Note 2: This parameter is not con-
trolled by the AEC.
Temperature Sensor
The VITA 2000 has an on-chip temperature sensor which
can output a digital code (Tsensor) of the silicon junction
temperature. The Tsensor output is a 8-bit digital count
between 0 and 255, proportional to the temperature of the
silicon substrate. This reading can be translated directly to
a temperature reading in °C by calibrating the 8-bit readout
at 0°C and 70°C to achieve an output accuracy of ±2°C. The
Tsensor output can also be calibrated using a single
temperature point (example: room temperature or the
ambient temperature of the application), to achieve an
output accuracy of ±5°C.
The resolution of the temperature sensor in ºC / bit is made
almost constant over process variations by design.
Therefore any process variation will result in an offset in the
bit count and this offset will remain within ±5°C over the
temperature range of 0°C and 70°C.
Tsensor output digital code can be read out through the
SPI interface. Refer to the Register Map on page 50.
The output of the temperature sensor to the SPI:
tempd_reg_temp<7:0>: This is the 8-bit N count readout
proportional to temperature.
The input from the SPI:
The reg_tempd_enable is a global enable and this enables
or disables the temperature sensor when logic high or logic
low respectively. The temperature sensor is reset or disabled
when the input reg_tempd_enable is set to a digital low state.
Calibration using one temperature point
The temperature sensor resolution is fixed for a given type
of package for the operating range of 0°C to +70°C and
hence devices can be calibrated at any ambient temperature
of the application, with the device configured in the mode of
operation.
Interpreting the actual temperature for the digital code
readout:
The formula used is
TJ = R (Nread - Ncalib) + Tcalib
TJ = junction die temperature
R = resolution in degrees/LSB (typical 0.75 deg/LSB)
Nread = Tsensor output (LSB count between 0 and 255)
Tcalib = Tsensor calibration temperature
Ncalib = Tsensor output reading at Tcalib
Monitor Pins
The internal sequencer has two monitor outputs (Pin 44
and Pin 45) that can be used to communicate the internal
states from the sequencer. A three-bit register configures the
assignment of the pins.
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Table 28. REGISTER SETTING FOR THE MONITOR SELECT PIN
monitor_select [2:0]
192 [13:11] monitor pin Description
0x0 monitor0
monitor1
‘0’
‘0’
0x1 monitor0
monitor1
Integration Time
ROT Indication (‘1’ during ROT, ‘0’ outside)
0x2 monitor0
monitor1
Integration Time
Dual/Triple Slope Integration (asserted during DS/TS FOT sequence)
0x3 monitor0
monitor1
Start of x-Readout Indication
Black Line Indication (‘1’ during black lines, ‘0’ outside)
0x4 monitor0
monitor1
Frame Start Indication
Start of ROT Indication
0x5 monitor0
monitor1
First Line Indication (‘1’ during first line, ‘0’ for all others)
Start of ROT Indication
0x6 monitor0
monitor1
ROT Indication (‘1’ during ROT, ‘0’ outside)
Start of X-Readout Indication
0x7 monitor0
monitor1
Start of X-readout Indication for Black Lines
Start of X-readout Indication for Image Lines
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DATA OUTPUT FORMAT
The VITA 2000 is available in two different versions:
V1-SN/SE: Four LVDS output channels, together with
an LVDS clock output and an LVDS synchronization
output channel.
V2-SN/SE: A 10-bit parallel CMOS output, together
with a CMOS clock output and ‘frame valid’ and ‘line
valid’ CMOS output signals.
V1-SN/SE: LVDS Interface Version
LVDS Output Channels
The image data output occurs through four LVDS data
channels. A synchronization LVDS channel and an LVDS
output clock signal is foreseen to synchronize the data.
The four data channels are used to output the image data
only. The sync channel transmits information about the data
sent over these data channels (includes codes indicating
black pixels, normal pixels, and CRC codes).
8-bit / 10-bit Mode
The sensor can be used in 8-bit or 10-bit mode.
In 10-bit mode, the words on data and sync channel have
a 10-bit length. The output data rate is 620 Mbps.
In 8-bit mode, the words on data and sync channel have an
8-bit length, the output data rate is 496 Mbps.
Note that the 8-bit mode can only be used to limit the data
rate at the consequence of image data word depth. It is not
supported to operate the sensor in 8-bit mode at a higher
clock frequency to achieve higher frame rates.
Frame Format
The frame format is explained by example of the readout
of two (overlapping) windows as shown in Figure 29 (a).
The readout of a frame occurs on a line-by-line basis. The
read pointer goes from left to right, bottom to top.
Figure 29 indicates that, after the FOT is completed, the
sensor reads out a number of black lines for black calibration
purposes. After these black lines, the windows are
processed. First a number of lines which only includes
information of ‘ROI 0’ are sent out, starting at position
y0_start. When the line at position y1_start is reached, a
number of lines containing data of ‘ROI 0’ and ‘ROI 1’ are
sent out, until the line position of y0_end is reached. From
there on, only data of ‘ROI 1’ appears on the data output
channels until line position y1_end is reached.
During read out of the image data over the data channels,
the sync channel sends out frame synchronization codes
which give information related to the image data that is sent
over the four data output channels.
Each line of a window starts with a Line Start (LS)
indication and ends with a Line End (LE) indication. The
line start of the first line is replaced by a Frame Start (FS);
the line end of the last line is replaced with a Frame End
indication (FE). Each such frame synchronization code is
followed by a window ID (range 0 to 7). For overlapping
windows, the line synchronization codes of the overlapping
windows with lower IDs are not sent out (as shown in the
illustration: no LE/FE is transmitted for the overlapping part
of window 0).
NOTE: In Figure 29, only Frame Start and Frame End
Sync words are indicated in (b). CRC codes are
also omitted from the figure.
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Figure 29. V1SN/SE: Frame Sync Codes
(a)
(b)
y0_start
y1_start
y0_end
y1_end
x0_start
x1_start
x0_end
x1_end
ROI 0
Reset
NExposure Time N Reset
N+1 Exposure Time N+1
ROI 0 FOT FOT
Integration Time
Handling
Readout
Handling FOT ROI
1
Readout Frame N-1 Readout Frame N
ROI 0 ROI
1
FS0 FS1 FE1 FS0 FS1 FE1
B
L
B
L
FOT FOT
ROI 1
Figure 30 shows the detail of a black line readout during global or full-frame readout.
Figure 30. V1SN/SE: Time Line for Black Line Readout
data channels
sync channel
data channels
sync channel
Sequencer
Internal State line Ys line Ys+1 line Yeblack
timeslot
0
Training
TR LS
Training
TR
FOT ROT ROT ROT
ROT
CRCBL
timeslot
1
timeslot
157
timeslot
158
timeslot
159
CRC
timeslot
BL0 BLBLBLBLLE 0
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Figure 31 shows the details of the readout of a number of lines for single window readout, at the beginning of the frame.
Figure 31. V1SN/SE: Time Line for Single Window Readout (at the start of a frame)
data channels
sync channel
data channels
sync channel
Sequencer
Internal State line Ys line Ys+1 line Ye
black
timeslot
Xstart
Training
TR FS ID
Training
TR
ID
ROT
CRCIMG IMG IMG IMG IMG
timeslot
Xstart + 1
timeslot
Xend - 2
timeslot
Xend - 1
timeslot
Xend
CRC
timeslot
IMG LE
ROT ROTROTFOT
Figure 32 shows the detail of the readout of a number of lines for readout of two overlapping windows.
Figure 32. V1SN/SE: Time Line Showing the Readout of Two Overlapping Windows
data channels
sync channel
data channels
sync channel
Sequencer
Internal State line Ys+1 line Yeblack
timeslot
XstartM
Training
TR LS IDM IMG LE
Training
TR
IDN
ROT
CRCIMG LS IDN IMG IMG
timeslot
XstartN
timeslot
XendN
line Ys
IMG
ROTROTROTFOT
Frame Synchronization for 10bit Mode
Table 30 shows the structure of the frame synchronization
code. Note that the table shows the default data word
(configurable) for 10-bit mode. If more than one window is
active at the same time, the sync channel transmits the frame
synchronization codes of the window with highest index
only.
Table 29. FRAME SYNCHRONIZATION CODE DETAILS FOR 10-BIT MODE
Sync Word Bit
Position
Register
Address
Default Val-
ue Description
9:7 N/A 0x5 Frame start indication
9:7 N/A 0x6 Frame end indication
9:7 N/A 0x1 Line start indication
9:7 N/A 0x2 Line end indication
6:0 131[6:0] 0x2A These bits indicate that the received sync word is a frame synchronization code. The
value is programmable by a register setting
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Window Identification
Frame synchronization codes are always followed by a
3-bit window identification (bits 2:0). This is an integer
number, ranging from 0 to 7, indicating the active window.
If more than one window is active for the current cycle, the
highest window ID is transmitted.
Data Classification Codes
For the remaining cycles, the sync channel indicates the
type of data sent through the data links: black pixel data
(BL), image data (IMG), or training pattern (TR). These
codes are programmable by a register setting. The default
values are listed in Table 31.
Table 30. SYNCHRONIZATION CHANNEL DEFAULT IDENTIFICATION CODE VALUES FOR 10-BIT MODE
Sync Word Bit
Position
Register
Address
Default
Value Description
9:0 132 [9:0] 0x015 Black pixel data (BL). This data is not part of the image. The black pixel data is used in-
ternally to correct channel offsets.
9:0 133 [9:0] 0x035 Valid pixel data (IMG). The data on the data output channels is valid pixel data (part of the
image).
9:0 134 [9:0] 0x059 CRC value. The data on the data output channels is the CRC code of the finished image
data line.
9:0 135 [9:0] 0x3A6 Training pattern (TR). The sync channel sends out the training pattern which can be pro-
grammed by a register setting.
Frame Synchronization in 8-bit Mode
The frame synchronization words are configured using
the same registers as in 10-bit mode. The two least
significant bits of these configuration registers are ignored
and not sent out. Table 32 shows the structure of the frame
synchronization code, together with the default value, as
specified in SPI registers. The same restriction for
overlapping windows applies in 8-bit mode.
Table 31. FRAME SYNCHRONIZATION CODE DETAILS FOR 8-BIT MODE
Sync Word Bit
Position
Register
Address
Default
Value Description
7:5 N/A 0x5 Frame start (FS) indication
7:5 N/A 0x6 Frame end (FE) indication
7:5 N/A 0x1 Line start (LS) indication
7:5 N/A 0x2 Line end (LE) indication
4:0 [6:2] 0x0A These bits indicate that the received sync word is a frame synchronization code. The val-
ue is programmable by a register setting.
Window Identification
Similar to 10-bit operation mode, the frame
synchronization codes are followed by a window
identification. The window ID is located in bits 4:2 (all other
bit positions are ‘0’). The same restriction for overlapping
windows applies in 8-bit mode.
Data Classification Codes
BL, IMG, CRC, and TR codes are defined by the same
registers as in 10-bit mode. Bits 9:2 of the respective
configuration registers are used as classification code with
default values shown in Table 33.
Table 32. SYNCHRONIZATION CHANNEL DEFAULT IDENTIFICATION CODE VALUES FOR 8-BIT MODE
Sync Word Bit
Position
Register
Address
Default
Value Description
7:0 132 [9:2] 0x05 Black pixel data (BL). This data is not part of the image. The black pixel data is used in-
ternally to correct channel offsets.
7:0 133 [9:2] 0x0D Valid pixel data (IMG). The data on the data output channels is valid pixel data (part of
the image).
7:0 134 [9:2] 0x16 CRC value. The data on the data output channels is the CRC code of the finished image
data line.
7:0 135 [9:2] 0xE9 Training Pattern (TR). The sync channel sends out the training pattern which can be pro-
grammed by a register setting.
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Training Patterns on Data Channels
In 10-bit mode, during idle periods, the data channels
transmit training patterns, indicated on the sync channel by
a TR code. These training patterns are configurable
independent of the training code on the sync channel as
shown in Table 34.
In 8-bit mode, the training pattern for the data channels is
defined by the same register as in 10-bit mode, where the
lower two bits are omitted; see Table 35.
Table 33. TRAINING CODE ON SYNC CHANNEL IN 10-BIT MODE
Sync Word Bit
Position
Register
Address
Default Val-
ue Description
[9:0] 130 [9:0] 0x3A6 Data channel training pattern. The data output channels send out the training pattern,
which can be programmed by a register setting. The default value of the training pattern
is 0x3A6, which is identical to the training pattern indication code on the sync channel.
Table 34. TRAINING PATTERN ON DATA CHANNEL IN 8-BIT MODE
Data Word Bit
Position
Register
Address
Default Val-
ue Description
[7:0] 130 [9:2] 0xE9 Data Channel Training Pattern (Training pattern).
Cyclic Redundancy Code
At the end of each line, a CRC code is calculated to allow
error detection at the receiving end. Each data channel
transmits a CRC code to protect the data words sent during
the previous cycles. Idle and training patterns are not
included in the calculation.
The sync channel is not protected. A special character
(CRC indication) is transmitted whenever the data channels
send their respective CRC code.
The polynomial in 10-bit operation mode is
x10 +x
9+x
6+x
3+x
2+ x + 1. The CRC encoder is seeded
at the start of a new line and updated for every (valid) data
word received. The CRC seed is configurable using the
crc_seed register. When ‘0’, the CRC is seeded by all-‘0’;
when ‘1’ it is seeded with all-‘1’.
In 8-bit mode, the polynomial is x8+x
6+x
3+x
2+1.
The CRC seed is configured by means of the crc_seed
register.
Note The CRC is calculated for every line. This implies
that the CRC code can protect lines from multiple windows.
Data Order
To read out the image data through the output channels,
the pixel array is organized in kernels. The kernel size is
eight pixels in x-direction by one pixel in y-direction.
Figure 33 indicates how the kernels are organized. The first
kernel (kernel [0, 0]) is located in the bottom left corner. The
data order of this image data on the data output channels
depends on the subsampling mode.
Figure 33. Kernel Organization in Pixel Array
ROI
kernel
(0,0)
kernel
(239,1199)
kernel
(x_start,y_start)
0 7321 5 6
pixel array
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V1SN/SE: No Subsampling
The image data is read out in kernels of eight pixels in
x-direction by one pixel in y-direction. One data channel
output delivers two pixel values of one kernel sequentially.
Figure 34 shows how a kernel is read out over the four
output channels. For even positioned kernels, the kernels are
read out ascending, while for odd positioned kernels the data
order is reversed (descending).
Figure 34. V1SN/SE: Data Output Order when Subsampling is Disabled
kernel 12 kernel 15kernel 14kernel 13
0 4321 5 76
pixel # (even kernel)
channel #0
channel #1
channel #3
channel #2
7 3456 2 01
pixel # (odd kernel)
channel #0
channel #1
channel #3
channel #2
time
10-bit 10-bit
MSB LSB MSB LSB
Note: The bit order is always MSB first,
regardless the kernel number
V1SN/SE: Subsampling on Monochrome Sensor
To read out the image data with subsampling enabled on
a monochrome sensor, two neighboring kernels are
combined to a single kernel of 16 pixels in the x-direction
and one pixel in the y-direction. Only the pixels at the even
pixel positions inside that kernel are read out. Figure 35
shows the data order.
Note that there is no difference in data order for even/odd
kernel numbers, as opposed to the ‘no-subsampling’
readout.
Figure 35. V1SN/SE: Data Output Order in Subsampling Mode on a Monochrome Sensor
10-bit 10-bit
MSB LSB MSB LSB
Note: The bit order is always MSB first,
regardless the kernel number
kernel 12 kernel 15kernel 14kernel 13
0 412214pixel #
channel #0
channel #1
8610
channel #2
channel #3
time
channe \ \ \ \ \ \ \ C: \ \XXXXXXXXXX\ \XXXXXM \XXXXXXHT: IXXXXXM 4 \_|
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V1SN/SE: Subsampling on Color Sensor
To read out the image data with subsampling enabled on
a color sensor, two neighboring kernels are combined to a
single kernel of 16 pixels in the x-direction and one pixel in
the y-direction. Only the pixels 0, 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 12, and 13 are
read out. Figure 36 shows the data order.
Note that there is no difference in data order for even/odd
kernel numbers, as opposed to the ‘no-subsampling’
readout.
Figure 36. V1SN/SE: Data Output Order in Subsampling Mode on a Color Sensor
kernel 12 kernel 15kernel 14kernel 13
0 412131pixel #
channel #0
channel #1
895
channel #2
channel #3
time
10-bit 10-bit
MSB LSB MSB LSB
Note: The bit order is always MSB first,
regardless the kernel number
V2SN/SE: CMOS Interface Version
CMOS Output Signals
The image data output occurs through a single 10-bit
parallel CMOS data output, operating at 62 MSps. A CMOS
clock output, ‘frame valid’ and ‘line valid’ signal is foreseen
to synchronize the output data.
No windowing information is sent out by the sensor.
8-bit/10-bit Mode
The 8-bit mode is not supported when using the parallel
CMOS output interface.
Frame Format
Frame timing is indicated by means of two signals:
frame_valid and line_valid.
The frame_valid indication is asserted at the start of a new
frame and remains asserted until the last line of the frame is
completely transmitted.
The line_valid indication serves the following needs:
While the line_valid indication is asserted, the data
channels contain valid pixel data.
The line valid communicates frame timing as it is
asserted at the start of each line and it is de-asserted at
the end of the line. Low periods indicate the idle time
between lines (ROT).
The data channels transmit the calculated CRC code
after each line. This can be detected as the data words
right after the falling edge of the line valid.
Figure 37. V2SN/SE: Frame Timing Indication
data channels
Sequencer
Internal State line Ys line Ys+1 line YeblackFOT ROT ROT ROTROT FOT ROT black
frame_valid
line_valid
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The frame format is explained with an example of the
readout of two (overlapping) windows as shown in
Figure 38 (a).
The readout of a frame occurs on a line-by-line basis. The
read pointer goes from left to right, bottom to top.
Figure 38 (a) and (b) indicate that, after the FOT is finished,
a number of lines which include information of ‘ROI 0’ are
sent out, starting at position y0_start. When the line at
position y1_start is reached, a number of lines containing
data of ‘ROI 0’ and ‘ROI 1’ are sent out, until the line
position of y0_end is reached. Then, only data of ‘ROI 1’
appears on the data output until line position y1_end is
reached. The line_valid strobe is not shown in Figure 38.
Figure 38. V2SN/SE: Frame Format to Read Out Image Data
(a)
(b)
1920 pixels
y0_start
y1_start
y0_end
y1_end
x0_start
x1_start
x0_end
x1_end
ROI0
ROI1
Reset
NExposure Time N Reset
N+1 Exposure Time N +1
ROI0 FOT FOT
Integration Time
Handling
Readout
Handling FOT
Readout Frame N -1 Readout Frame N
ROI0 ROI1
Frame valid
FOT FOT
ROI1
pixels
1200
Black Lines: Black pixel data is also sent through the data
channels. To distinguish these pixels from the regular image
data, it is possible to ‘mute’ the frame and/or line valid
indications for the black lines.
Table 35. BLACK LINE FRAME_VALID AND LINE_VALID SETTINGS
bl_frame_val-
id_enable
bl_line_val-
id_enable Description
0x1 0x1 The black lines are handled similar to normal image lines. The frame valid indication is asserted
before the first black line and the line valid indication is asserted for every valid (black) pixel.
0x1 0x0 The frame valid indication is asserted before the first black line, but the line valid indication is not
asserted for the black lines. The line valid indication indicates the valid image pixels only. This
mode is useful when one does not use the black pixels and when the frame valid indication needs
to be asserted some time before the first image lines (for example, to precondition ISP pipelines).
0x0 0x1 In this mode, the black pixel data is clearly unambiguously indicated by the line valid indication,
while the decoding of the real image data is simplified.
0x0 0x0 Black lines are not indicated and frame and line valid strobes remain de-asserted. Note however
that the data channels contains the black pixel data and CRC codes (Training patterns are inter-
rupted).
D m / \ pwxe‘ # (mam
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Data Order
To read out the image data through the parallel CMOS
output, the pixel array is divided in kernels. The kernel size
is eight pixels in x-direction by one pixel in y-direction.
Figure 33 on page 45 indicates how the kernels are
organized.
The data order of this image data on the data output
channels depends on the subsampling mode.
V2-SN/SE: No Subsampling
The image data is read out in kernels of eight pixels in
x-direction by one pixel in y-direction.
Figure 39 shows the pixel sequence of a kernel which is
read out over the single CMOS output channel. The pixel
order is different for even and odd kernel positions.
Figure 39. V2SN/SE: Data Output Order without Subsampling
kernel 12 kernel 15kernel 14kernel 13
0 1642 3 75
pixel # (even kernel)
7 6135 4 02
pixel # (odd kernel)
time
time
V2SN/SE: Subsampling On Monochrome Sensor
To read out the image data with subsampling enabled on
a monochrome sensor, two neighboring kernels are
combined to a single kernel of 16 pixels in the x-direction
and one pixel in the y-direction. Only the pixels at the even
pixel positions inside that kernel are read out. Figure 40
shows the data order
Note that there is no difference in data order for even/odd
kernel numbers, as opposed to the ‘no-subsampling’
readout.
Figure 40. V2SN/SE: Data Output Order with Subsampling on a Monochrome Sensor
kernel 12 kernel 15kernel 14kernel 13
0 14642 12 810
pixel #
time
time
V2SN/SE: Subsampling On Color Sensor
To read out the image data with subsampling enabled on
a color sensor, two neighboring kernels are combined to a
single kernel of 16 pixels in the x-direction and one pixel in
the y-direction. Only the pixels 0, 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 12, and 13 are
read out. Figure 41 shows the data order.
Note that there is no difference in data order for even/odd
kernel numbers, as opposed to the ‘no-subsampling’
readout.
Figure 41. V2SN/SE: Data Output Order with Subsampling on a Color Sensor
kernel 12 kernel 15kernel 14kernel 13
0 19413 12 85
pixel #
time
time
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REGISTER MAP
Table 36. REGISTER MAP
Address
Offset Address Bit Field Register Name
Default
(Hex)
Default
(Dec) Description Type
Chip ID [Block Offset: 0]
0 0 chip_id 0x5614 22036 RO
[15:0] id 0x5614 22036 ON Semiconductor chip ID
1 1 reserved 0x0000 0 RO
[3:0] reserved 0x0000 0 Reserved
2 2 chip_configuration 0x0000 0 RW
[1:0] 0x0 0 Configure as per part number:
NOIV1SN2000A-QDC: 0x0
NOIV1SN2000A-QDC: 0x1
NOIV2SN2000A-QDC: 0x2
NOIV2SN2000A-QDC: 0x3
Reset Generator [Block Offset: 8]
0 8 soft_reset_pll 0x099 153 RW
[3:0] pll_soft_reset 0x9 9 PLL reset
0x9: Soft reset state
Others: Operational
[7:4] pll_lock_soft_reset 0x9 9 PLL lock detect reset
0x9: Soft reset state
Others: Operational
1 9 soft_reset_cgen 0x09 9 RW
[3:0] cgen_soft_reset 0x9 9 Clock generator reset
0x9: Soft reset state
Others: Operational
2 10 soft_reset_analog 0x0999 2457 RW
[3:0] mux_soft_reset 0x9 9 Column MUX reset
0x9: Soft reset state
Others: Operational
[7:4] afe_soft_reset 0x9 9 AFE reset
0x9: Soft reset state
Others: Operational
[11:8] ser_soft_reset 0x9 9 Serializer reset
0x9: Soft reset state
Others: Operational
PLL [Block Offset: 16]
0 16 power_down 0x0004 4 RW
[0] pwd_n 0x0 0 PLL Power down
‘0’ = Power down,
‘1’ = Operational
[1] enable 0x0 0 PLL enable
‘0’ = disabled,
‘1’ = enabled
[2] bypass 0x1 1 PLL bypass
‘0’ = PLL active,
‘1’ = PLL bypassed
1 17 config 0x2113 8467 RW
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Table 36. REGISTER MAP
Address
Offset TypeDescription
Default
(Dec)
Default
(Hex)
Register NameBit FieldAddress
[7:0] mdiv 0x13 19 M-divider
19: NOIV1SN2000-10 bit,
15: NOIV1SN2000-8 bit
[12:8] ndiv 0x1 1 N-divider
[14:13] pdiv 0x1 1 P-divider
IO [Block Offset: 20]
0 20 config 0x0000 0 RW
[0] clock_in_pwd_n 0x0 0 Power down clock Input
[10:8] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
PLL lock detector [Block Offset: 24]
0 24 pll_lock 0x0000 0 RO
[0] lock 0x0 0 PLL lock indication
2 26 reserved 0x2280 8832 RW
[14:0] reserved 0x2280 8832 Reserved
3 27 reserved 0x3D2D 15661 Reserved RW
[15:0] reserved 0x3D2D 15661 Reserved
Clock Generator [Block Offset: 32]
0 32 config 0x0004 4 RW
[0] enable_analog 0x0 0 Enable analog clocks
‘0’ = disabled,
‘1’ = enabled
[1] enable_log 0x0 0 Enable logic clock
‘0’ = disabled,
‘1’ = enabled
[2] select_pll 0x1 1 Input clock selection
‘0’ = Select LVDS clock input,
‘1’ = Select PLL clock input
[3] adc_mode 0x0 0 Set operation mode
‘0’ = 10-bit mode,
‘1’ = 8-bit mode
[11:8] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
[14:12] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
General Logic [Block Offset: 34]
0 34 config 0x0000 0 RW
[0] enable 0x0 0 Logic general enable Configura-
tion
‘0’ = Disable
‘1’ = Enable
Image Core [Block Offset: 40]
0 40 image_core_config 0x0000 0 RW
[0] imc_pwd_n 0x0 0 Image core power down
‘0’ = powered down,
‘1’ = powered up
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Table 36. REGISTER MAP
Address
Offset TypeDescription
Default
(Dec)
Default
(Hex)
Register NameBit FieldAddress
[1] mux_pwd_n 0x0 0 Column multiplexer Power down
‘0’ = powered down,
‘1’ = powered up
[2] colbias_enable 0x0 0 Bias enable
‘0’ = disabled
‘1’ = enabled
1 41 image_core_config 0xB5A 2906 RW
[3:0] dac_ds 0xA 10 Double slope reset level
[7:4] dac_ts 0x5 5 Triple slope reset level
[10:8] reserved 0x3 3 Reserved
[12:11] reserved 0x1 1 Reserved
[13] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
[14] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
[15] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
AFE [Block Offset:48]
0 48 power_down 0x0000 0 RW
[0] pwd_n 0x0 0 Power down for AFEs (8 columns)
‘0’ = powered down,
‘1’ = powered up
Bias [Block Offset: 64]
0 64 power_down 0x0000 0 RW
[0] pwd_n 0x0 0 Power down bandgap
‘0’ = powered down,
‘1’ = powered up
1 65 configuration 0x888B 34955 RW
[0] extres 0x1 1 External resistor selection
‘0’ = internal resistor,
‘1’ = external resistor
[3:1] reserved 0x5 5 Reserved
[7:4] imc_colpc_ibias 0x8 8 Column precharge ibias Configur-
ation
[11:8] imc_colbias_ibias 0x8 8 Column bias ibias configuration
[15:12] cp_ibias 0x8 8 Charge pump bias
2 66 afe_bias 0x53C8 21448 RW
[3:0] afe_ibias 0x8 8 AFE ibias configuration
[7:4] afe_adc_iref 0xC 12 ADC iref configuration
[14:8] afe_pga_iref 0x53 83 PGA iref configuration
3 67 mux_bias 0x8888 34952 RW
[3:0] mux_25u_stage1 0x8 8 Column multiplexer stage 1 bias
configuration
[7:4] mux_25u_stage2 0x8 8 Column multiplexer stage 2 bias
configuration
[15:8] reserved 0x88 72 Reserved
4 68 lvds_bias 0x0088 136 RW
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Table 36. REGISTER MAP
Address
Offset TypeDescription
Default
(Dec)
Default
(Hex)
Register NameBit FieldAddress
[3:0] lvds_ibias 0x8 8 LVDS Ibias
[7:4] lvds_iref 0x8 8 LVDS Iref
6 70 reserved 0x8888 34952 RW
[11:0] reserved 0x888 2184 Reserved
[15:2] afe_ref_bias 0x8 8 AFE_reference
Charge Pump [Block Offset: 72]
0 72 config 0x1200 4608 RW
[0] respd_trans_pwd_n 0x0 0 PD trans charge pump enable
‘0’ = disabled, ‘1’ = enabled
[1] resfd_pwd_n 0x0 0 FD charge pump enable
‘0’ = disabled, ‘1’ = enabled
[10:8] respd_trans_trim 0x2 2 PD trans charge pump trim
[14:12] resfd_trim 0x1 1 FD charge pump trim
Reserved [Block Offset: 80]
0 80 reserved 0x0000 0 RW
[9:0] reserved 0x000 0 Reserved
1 81 reserved 0x8881 34945 RW
[15:0] reserved 0x8881 34945 Reserved
Temperature Sensor [Block Offset: 96]
0 96 sensor enable 0x0000 0 RW
[0] reg_tempd_enable 0x0 0 Temperature Diode Enable
‘0’ = disabled
‘1’ = enabled
1 97 sensor output 0x0000 0 RO
[7:0] tempd_reg_temp 0x00 0 Temperature Readout
Serializer/LVDS [Block Offset: 112]
0112 power_down 0x0000 0 RW
[0] clock_out_pwd_n 0x0 0 Power down for clock output.
‘0’ = powered down,
‘1’ = powered up
[1] sync_pwd_n 0x0 0 Power down for sync channel
‘0’ = powered down,
‘1’ = powered up
[2] data_pwd_n 0x0 0 Power down for data channels (4
channels)
‘0’ = powered down,
‘1’ = powered up
Data Block [Block Offset: 128]
0 128 blackcal 0x4008 16392 RW
[7:0] black_offset 0x08 8 Desired black level at output
[10:8] black_samples 0x0 0 Black pixels taken into account for
black calibration.
Total samples = 2**black_samples
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Table 36. REGISTER MAP
Address
Offset TypeDescription
Default
(Dec)
Default
(Hex)
Register NameBit FieldAddress
[14:11] adc_offset 0x8 8 ADC offset = 2**adc_offset.
This setting should correspond to
the Calibration DAC setting
[15] crc_seed 0x0 0 CRC seed
‘0’ = All 0
‘1’ = All 1
1 129 general_configuration 0xC001 49153 RW
[0] auto_blackcal_enable 0x1 1 Automatic blackcalibration is en-
abled when 1, bypassed when 0
[9:1] blackcal_offset 0x00 0 Black Calibration offset used when
auto_black_cal_en = ‘0’.
[10] blackcal_offset_dec 0x0 0 blackcal_offset is added when 0,
subtracted when 1
[11] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
[12] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
[13] 8bit_mode 0x0 0 Shifts window ID indications by 4
cycles.
‘0’ = 10 bit mode, ‘1’ = 8 bit mode
[14] bl_frame_valid_
enable
0x1 1 Assert frame_valid for black lines
when ‘1’, gate frame_valid for
black lines when ‘0’.
NOIV2SN2000AA-QZDC only
[15] bl_line_valid_enable 0x1 1 Assert line_valid for black lines
when ‘1’, gate line_valid for black
lines when ‘0’.
NOIV2SN2000AA-QZDC only
2 130 trainingpattern 0x03A6 934 RW
[9:0] trainingpattern 0x3A6 934 Training pattern sent on data
channels during idle mode. This
data is used to perform word
alignment on the LVDS data chan-
nels.
[10] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
3 131 sync_code0 0x002A 42 RW
[6:0] frame_sync 0x02A 42 Frame sync LSBs.
Note: The tenth bit indicates
frame/line sync code, ninth bit in-
dicates start, eighth bit indicates
end.
4 132 sync_code1 0x0015 21 RW
[9:0] bl 0x015 21 Black pixel identification sync
code
5 133 sync_code2 0x0035 53 RW
[9:0] img 0x035 53 Valid pixel identification sync code
6 134 sync_code3 0x0059 89 RW
[9:0] crc 0x059 89 CRC value identification sync
code
7 135 sync_code4 0x03A6 934 RW
[9:0] tr 0x3A6 934 Training value identification sync
code
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Table 36. REGISTER MAP
Address
Offset TypeDescription
Default
(Dec)
Default
(Hex)
Register NameBit FieldAddress
8 136 blackcal_error0 0x0000 0 RO
[7:0] blackcal_error[7:0] 0x0000 0 Black Calibration Error. This flag is
set when not enough black sam-
ples are available. Black Cal-
ibration is not valid. Channels 0-7.
9 137 reserved 0x0000 0 RO
[15:0] reserved 0x0000 0 Reserved
10 138 reserved 0x0000 0 RO
[15:0] reserved 0x0000 0 Reserved
11 139 reserved 0x0000 0 RO
[15:0] reserved 0x0000 0 Reserved
12 140 reserved 0x0000 0 RW
[15:0] reserved 0x0000 0 Reserved
13 141 reserved 0xFFFF 65535 RW
[15:0] reserved 0xFFFF 65535 Reserved
Datablock - Test
16 144 test_configuration 0x0000 0 RW
[0] testpattern_en 0x0 0 Insert synthesized testpattern
when ‘1’
[1] inc_testpattern 0x0 0 Incrementing testpattern when ‘1’,
constant testpattern when ‘0’
[2] prbs_en 0x0 0 Insert PRBS when ‘1’
[3] frame_testpattern 0x0 0 Frame test patterns when ‘1’, un-
framed testpatterns when ‘0’
[4] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
17 145 reserved 0x0000 0 RW
[15:0] reserved 0 Reserved
18 146 test_configuration0 0x0100 256 RW
[7:0] testpattern0_lsb 0x00 0 Testpattern used on datapath #0
when testpattern_en = ‘1’.
Note: Most significant bits are con-
figured in register 150.
[15:8] testpattern1_lsb 0x01 1 Testpattern used on datapath #1
when testpattern_en = ‘1’.
Note: Most significant bits are con-
figured in register 150.
19 147 test_configuration1 0x0302 770 RW
[7:0] testpattern2_lsb 0x02 2 Testpattern used on datapath #2
when testpattern_en = ‘1’.
Note: Most significant bits are con-
figured in register 150.
[15:8] testpattern3_lsb 0x03 3 Testpattern used on datapath #3
when testpattern_en = ‘1’.
Note: Most significant bits are con-
figured in register 150.
20 148 reserved 0x0504 1284 RW
[7:0] reserved 0x04 4 Reserved
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Table 36. REGISTER MAP
Address
Offset TypeDescription
Default
(Dec)
Default
(Hex)
Register NameBit FieldAddress
[15:8] reserved 0x05 5 Reserved
21 149 test_configuration3 0x0706 1798 RW
[7:0] reserved 0x06 6 Reserved
[15:8] reserved 0x07 7 Reserved
22 150 test_configuration16 0x0000 0 RW
[1:0] testpattern0_msb 0x0 0 Testpattern used when testpat-
tern_en = ‘1’
[3:2] testpattern1_msb 0x0 0 Testpattern used when testpat-
tern_en = ‘1’
[5:4] testpattern2_msb 0x0 0 Testpattern used when testpat-
tern_en = ‘1’
[7:6] testpattern3_msb 0x0 0 Testpattern used when testpat-
tern_en = ‘1’
[9:8] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
[11:10] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
[13:12] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
[15:14] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
26 154 reserved 0x0000 0 RW
[15:0] reserved 0x0000 0 Reserved
27 155 reserved 0x0000 0 RW
[15:0] reserved 0x0000 0 Reserved
AEC[Block Offset: 160]
0 160 configuration 0x0010 16 RW
[0] enable 0x0 0 AEC enable
[1] restart_filter 0x0 0 Restart AEC filter
[2] freeze 0x0 0 Freeze AEC filter and enforcer
gains
[3] pixel_valid 0x0 0 Use every pixel from channel
when 0, every 4th pixel when 1
[4] amp_pri 0x1 1 Stage 1 amplifier gets higher prior-
ity than stage 2 gain distribution if
1. vice versa if 0
1 161 intensity 0x60B8 24760 RW
[9:0] desired_intensity 0xB8 184 Target average intensity
[13:10] clipping_thresh-
old_avg
0x018 24 Clipping threshold for average inc
factor
3.3 unsigned
2 162 red_scale_factor 0x0080 128 RW
[9:0] red_scale_factor 0x80 128 Red scale factor for AEC statistics
3.7 unsigned
3 163 green1_scale_factor 0x0080 128 RW
[9:0] green1_scale_factor 0x80 128 Green1 scale factor for AEC stat-
istics
3.7 unsigned
4 164 green2_scale_factor 0x0080 128 RW
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Table 36. REGISTER MAP
Address
Offset TypeDescription
Default
(Dec)
Default
(Hex)
Register NameBit FieldAddress
[9:0] green2_scale_factor 0x80 128 Green2 scale factor for AEC stat-
istics
3.7 unsigned
5 165 blue_scale_factor 0x0080 128 RW
[9:0] blue_scale_factor 0x80 128 Blue scale factor for AEC statistics
3.7 unsigned
6 166 exposure 0x03FF 1023 RW
[15:0] fixed_exposure 0x03FF 1023 Fixed/default exposure time
7 167 gain 0x0800 2048 RW
[1:0] gain_stage1_select 0x0 0 Fixed default gain stage1
[3:2] gain_stage2_select 0x0 0 Fixed/default gain stage2
[15:4] fixed_digital_gain 0x080 128 Fixed/default digital gain
5.7 unsigned
8 168 min_exposure 0x0001 1 RW
[15:0] min_exposure 0x0001 1 Minimum exposure time
9 169 min_gain 0x0800 2048 RW
[1:0] min_gain_stage1 0x0 0 Minimum gain stage 1
[3:2] min_gain_stage2 0x0 0 Minimum gain stage 2
[15:4] min_digital_gain 0x080 128 Minimum digital gain
5.7 unsigned
10 170 max_exposure 0x03FF 1023 RW
[15:0] max_exposure 0x03FF 1023 Maximum exposure time
11 171 max_gain 0x100D 4109 RW
[1:0] max_gain_stage1 0x1 1 Maximum gain stage 1
[3:2] max_gain_stage2 0x3 3 Maximum gain stage 2
[15:4] max_digital_gain 0x100 256 Maximum digital gain
5.7 unsigned
12 172 reserved 0x00083 131 RW
[7:0] reserved 0x083 131 Reserved
[13:8] reserved 0x00 0 Reserved
[15:14] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
13 173 reserved 0x2824 10276 RW
[7:0] reserved 0x024 36 Reserved
[15:8] reserved 0x028 40 Reserved
14 174 reserved 0x2A96 10902 RW
[15:0] reserved 0x2A96 10902 Reserved
15 175 reserved 0x0080 128 RW
[9:0] reserved 0x080 128 Reserved
16 176 reserved 0x0100 256 RW
[9:0] reserved 0x100 256 Reserved
17 177 reserved 0x0100 256 RW
[9:0] reserved 0x100 256 Reserved
18 178 reserved 0x0080 128 RW
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Table 36. REGISTER MAP
Address
Offset TypeDescription
Default
(Dec)
Default
(Hex)
Register NameBit FieldAddress
[9:0] reserved 0x080 128 Reserved
19 179 reserved 0x00AA 170 RW
[9:0] reserved 0x0AA 170 Reserved
20 180 reserved 0x0100 256 RW
[9:0] reserved 0x100 256 Reserved
21 181 reserved 0x0155 341 RW
[9:0] reserved 0x155 341 Reserved
24 184 total_pixels0 0x0000 0 RO
[15:0] total_pixels[15:0] 0x0000 0 Total number of pixels sampled for
Average, LSB
25 185 total_pixels1 0x0000 0 RO
[2:0] total_pixels[18:16] 0x0 0 Total number of pixels sampled for
Average, MSB
26 186 average_status 0x0000 0 RO
[9:0] average 0x000 0 AEC average status
[12] locked 0x0 0 AEC filter lock status
27 187 exposure_status 0x0000 0 RO
[15:0] exposure 0x0000 0 AEC exposure status
28 188 gain_status 0x00 0 RO
[1:0] gain_stage1 0x0 0 Gain stage 1 status
[3:2] gain_stage2 0x0 0 Gain stage 2 status
[15:4] digital_gain 0x000 0 AEC digital gain status
5.7 unsigned
29 189 reserved 0x0000 0 RO
[12:0] reserved 0x000 0 Reserved
Sequencer [Block Offset: 192]
0 192 general_configuration 0x00 0 RW
[0] enable 0x0 0 Enable sequencer
‘0’ = Idle,
‘1’ = enabled
[1] rolling_shutter_enable 0x0 0 Operation Selection
‘0’ = global shutter,
‘1’ = rolling shutter
[2] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
[3] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
[4] triggered_mode 0x0 0 Triggered mode selection (global
shutter only)
‘0’ = Normal Mode,
‘1’ = Triggered Mode
[5] slave_mode 0x0 0 Master/slave selection (global
shutter only)
‘0’ = master,
‘1’ = slave
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Table 36. REGISTER MAP
Address
Offset TypeDescription
Default
(Dec)
Default
(Hex)
Register NameBit FieldAddress
[6] xsm_delay_enable 0x0 0 Insert delay between end of ROT
and start of readout if ‘1’. ROT de-
lay is defined by register xsm_de-
lay
[7] subsampling 0x0 0 Subsampling mode selection
‘0’ = no subsampling,
‘1’ = subsampling
[8] binning 0x0 0 Binning mode selection
‘0’ = no binning,
‘1’ = binning
[10] roi_aec_enable 0x0 0 Enable windowing for AEC statist-
ics.
‘0’ = Subsample all windows
‘1’ = Subsample configured win-
dow
[13:11] monitor_select 0x0 0 Control of the monitor pins
[14] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
1 193 delay_configuration 0x0000 0 RW
[7:0] rs_x_length 0x00 0 X-Readout duration in rolling shut-
ter mode (extends lines with dum-
my pixels).
[15:8] xsm_delay 0x00 0 Delay between ROT end and
X-readout (only when xsm_de-
lay_enable=‘1’)
2 194 integration_control 0x0004 4 RW
[0] dual_slope_enable 0x0 0 Enable dual slope (global shutter
mode only)
[1] triple_slope_enable 0x0 0 Enable triple slope (global shutter
mode only)
[2] fr_mode 0x1 1 Representation of fr_length.
‘0’: reset length
‘1’: frame length
[9:3] reserved 0x00 0 Reserved
3 195 roi_active0 0x0001 1 RW
[7:0] roi_active[7:0] 0x01 1 Active ROI selection
4 196 reserved 0x0000 0 RW
[15:0] reserved 0x0000 0 Reserved
5 197 black_lines 0x0102 258 RW
[7:0] black_lines 0x02 2 Number of black lines; minimum is
1
Range 1 to 255
[8] gate_first_line 0x1 1 Blank out first line
‘0’: No blank out
‘1’: Blank out
6 198 dummy_lines 0x0000 0 RW
[11:0] dummy_lines 0x000 0 Number of dummy lines (Rolling
shutter only)
Range 0 to 2047
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Table 36. REGISTER MAP
Address
Offset TypeDescription
Default
(Dec)
Default
(Hex)
Register NameBit FieldAddress
7 199 mult_timer 0x0001 1 RW
[15:0] mult_timer 0x0001 1 Mult timer (global shutter only)
Defines granularity (unit = 1/Sys-
tem Clock) of exposure and re-
set_length
8 200 fr_length 0x0000 0 RW
[15:0] fr_length 0x0000 0 Frame/reset length (global shutter
only)
Reset length when fr_mode = ‘0’,
Frame length when fr_mode = ‘1’
Granularity defined by mult_timer
9 201 exposure 0x0000 0 RW
[15:0] exposure 0x0000 0 Exposure time
Rolling shutter: granularity lines
Global shutter: granularity defined
by mult_timer
10 202 exposure 0x0000 0 RW
[15:0] exposure_ds 0x0000 0 Exposure time (dual slope)
Rolling shutter: N/A
Global shutter: granularity defined
by mult_timer
11 203 exposure 0x0000 0 RW
[15:0] exposure_ts 0x0000 0 Exposure time (triple slope)
Rolling shutter: N/A
Global shutter: granularity defined
by mult_timer
12 204 gain_configuration 0x01E2 482 RW
[1:0] gain_stage1 0x02 2 Gain stage 1
[8:5] gain_stage2 0xF 15 Gain stage 2
[13] gain_lat_comp 0x0 0 Postpone gain update by 1 frame
when ‘1’ to compensate for expos-
ure time updates latency.
Gain is applied at start of next
frame if ‘0’
13 205 digital_gain_configura-
tion
0x0080 128 RW
[11:0] db_gain 0x080 128 Digital gain
14 206 sync_configuration 0x033F 831 RW
[0] sync_rs_x_length 0x1 1 Update of rs_x_length are not syn-
chronized at start of frame when
‘0’
[1] sync_black_lines 0x1 1 Update of black_lines are not syn-
chronized at start of frame when
‘0’
[2] sync_dummy_lines 0x1 1 Update of dummy_lines are not
synchronized at start of frame
when ‘0’
[3] sync_exposure 0x1 1 Update of exposure are not syn-
chronized at start of frame when
‘0’
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Table 36. REGISTER MAP
Address
Offset TypeDescription
Default
(Dec)
Default
(Hex)
Register NameBit FieldAddress
[4] sync_gain 0x1 1 Update of gain settings (gain_sw,
afe_gain) are not synchronized at
start of frame when ‘0’
[5] sync_roi 0x1 1 ROI updates (active_roi) are not
synchronized at start of frame
when ‘0’
[8] blank_roi_switch 0x1 1 Blank first frame after ROI switch-
ing
[9] blank_subsampling_ss 0x1 1 Blank first frame after sub-
sampling/binning mode switching
in global shutter mode (always
blanked out in rolling shutter
mode)
[10] exposure_sync_mode 0x0 0 When ‘0’, exposure configurations
are synchronized at the start of
FOT. When ‘1’, exposure configur-
ations sync is disabled (continu-
ously syncing). This mode is only
relevant for Triggered global mas-
ter mode, where the exposure
configurations are sync’ed at the
start of exposure rather than the
start of FOT. For all other modes it
should be set to ‘0’.
Note: Sync is still postponed if
sync_exposure=‘0’.
16 208 mult_timer_status 0x0000 0 RO
[15:0] mult_timer 0x0000 0 Mult timer status (master global
shutter only)
17 209 reset_length_status 0x0000 0 RO
[15:0] reset_length 0x0000 0 Current reset length (not in slave
mode)
18 210 exposure_status 0x0000 0 RO
[15:0] exposure 0x0000 0 Current exposure time (not in
slave mode)
19 211 exposure_ds_status 0x0000 0 RO
[15:0] exposure_ds 0x0000 0 Current exposure time (not in
slave mode)
20 212 exposure_ts_status 0x0000 0 RO
[15:0] exposure_ts 0x0000 0 Current exposure time (not in
slave mode)
21 213 gain_status 0x0000 0 RO
[1:0] gain_stage1 0x00 0 Current stage 1 gain
[8:5] gain_stage2 0x00 0 Current stage 2 gain
22 214 digital_gain_status 0x0000 0 RO
[11:0] db_gain 0x000 0 Current digital gain
[12] dual_slope 0x0 0 Dual slope enabled
[13] triple_slope 0x0 0 Triple slope enabled
24 216 reserved 0x7F00 32512 RW
[14:0] reserved 0x7F00 32512 Reserved
25 217 reserved 0x261E 9758 RW
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Table 36. REGISTER MAP
Address
Offset TypeDescription
Default
(Dec)
Default
(Hex)
Register NameBit FieldAddress
[14:0] reserved 0x261E 9758 Reserved
26 218 reserved 0x160B 5643 RW
[14:0] reserved 0x160B 5643 Reserved
27 219 reserved 0x3E2E 15918 RW
[14:0] reserved 0x3E2E 15918 Reserved
28 220 reserved 0x6368 25448 RW
[14:0] reserved 0x6368 25448 Reserved
29 221 reserved 0x0008 8 RW
[6:0] reserved 0x08 8 Reserved
32 224 reserved 0x3E01 15873 RW
[3:0] reserved 0x1 1 Reserved
[7:4] reserved 0x0 0 Reserved
[13:8] reserved 0x3E 62 Reserved
33 225 reserved 0x5EF1 24305 RW
[15:0] reserved 0x5EF1 24305 Reserved
34 226 reserved 0x6000 24576 RW
[15:0] reserved 0x6000 24576 Reserved
35 227 reserved 0x0000 0 RW
[15:0] reserved 0x0000 0 Reserved
36 228 reserved 0xFFFF 65535 RW
[15:0] reserved 0xFFFF 65535 Reserved
58 250 reserved 0x0422 1058 RW
[4:0] reserved 0x02 2 Reserved
[9:5] reserved 0x01 1 Reserved
[14:10] reserved 0x01 1 Reserved
59 251 reserved 0x30F 783 RW
[7:0] reserved 0xF 15 Reserved
[15:8] reserved 0x3 3 Reserved
60 252 reserved 0x0601 1537 RW
[7:0] reserved 0x1 1 Reserved
[15:8] reserved 0x6 6 Reserved
61 253 roi_aec_configuration0 0x0000 0 RW
[7:0] x_start 0x00 0 AEC ROI X start
Configuration (used for AEC stat-
istics when roi_aec_enable=‘1’)
[15:8] x_end 0x0 0 AEC ROI X end
Configuration (used for AEC stat-
istics when roi_aec_enable=‘1’)
62 254 roi_aec_configuration1 0x0000 0 RW
[10:0] y_start 0x000 0 AEC ROI Y start
Configuration (used for AEC stat-
istics when roi_aec_enable=‘1’)
63 255 roi_aec_configuration2 0x0000 0 RW
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Table 36. REGISTER MAP
Address
Offset TypeDescription
Default
(Dec)
Default
(Hex)
Register NameBit FieldAddress
[10:0] y_end 0x0 0 AEC ROI Y end
Configuration (used for AEC stat-
istics when roi_aec_enable=‘1’)
Sequencer ROI [Block Offset: 256]
0 256 roi0_configuration0 0xEF00 61184 RW
[7:0] x_start 0x00 0 ROI 0 X start
Configuration
[15:8] x_end 0xEF 239 ROI 0 X end
Configuration
1 257 roi0_configuration1 0x0000 0 RW
[10:0] y_start 0x000 0 ROI 0 Y start
Configuration
2 258 roi0_configuration2 0x04AF 1199 RW
[10:0] y_end 0x4AF 1199 ROI 0 Y end
Configuration
3 259 roi1_configuration0 0xEF00 61184 RW
[7:0] x_start 0x00 0 ROI 1 X start
Configuration
[15:8] x_end 0xEF 239 ROI 1 X end
Configuration
4 260 roi1_configuration1 0x0000 0 RW
[10:0] y_start 0x000 0 ROI 1 Y start
Configuration
5 261 roi1_configuration2 0x04AF 1199 RW
[10:0] y_end 0x4AF 1199 ROI 1 Y end
Configuration
6 262 roi2_configuration0 0xEF00 61184 RW
[7:0] x_start 0x00 0 ROI 2 X start
Configuration
[15:8] x_end 0xEF 239 ROI 2 X end
Configuration
7 263 roi2_configuration1 0x0000 0 RW
[10:0] y_start 0x000 0 ROI 2 Y start
Configuration
8 264 roi2_configuration2 0x04AF 1199 RW
[10:0] y_end 0x4AF 1199 ROI 2 Y end
Configuration
9 265 roi3_configuration0 0xEF00 61184 RW
[7:0] x_start 0x00 0 ROI 3 X start
Configuration
[15:8] x_end 0xEF 239 ROI 3 X end
Configuration
10 266 roi3_configuration1 0x0000 0 RW
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Table 36. REGISTER MAP
Address
Offset TypeDescription
Default
(Dec)
Default
(Hex)
Register NameBit FieldAddress
[10:0] y_start 0x000 0 ROI 3 Y start
Configuration
11 267 roi3_configuration2 0x04AF 1199 RW
[10:0] y_end 0x4AF 1199 ROI 3 Y end
Configuration
12 268 roi4_configuration0 0xEF00 61184 RW
[7:0] x_start 0x00 0 ROI 4 X start
Configuration
[15:8] x_end 0xEF 239 ROI 4 X end
Configuration
13 269 roi4_configuration1 0x0000 0 RW
[10:0] y_start 0x000 0 ROI 4 Y start
Configuration
14 270 roi4_configuration2 0x04AF 1199 RW
[10:0] y_end 0x4AF 1199 ROI 4 Y end
Configuration
15 271 roi5_configuration0 0xEF00 61184 RW
[7:0] x_start 0x00 0 ROI 5 X start
Configuration
[15:8] x_end 0xEF 239 ROI 5 X end
Configuration
16 272 roi5_configuration1 0x0000 0 RW
[10:0] y_start 0x000 0 ROI 5 Y start
Configuration
17 273 roi5_configuration2 0x04AF 1199 RW
[10:0] y_end 0x4AF 1199 ROI 5 Y end
Configuration
18 274 roi6_configuration0 0xEF00 61184 RW
[7:0] x_start 0x00 0 ROI 6 X start
Configuration
[15:8] x_end 0xEF 239 ROI 6 X end
Configuration
19 275 roi6_configuration1 0x0000 0 RW
[10:0] y_start 0x000 0 ROI 6 Y start
Configuration
20 276 roi6_configuration2 0x04AF 1199 RW
[10:0] y_end 0x4AF 1199 ROI 6 Y end
Configuration
21 277 roi7_configuration0 0xEF00 61184 RW
[7:0] x_start 0x00 0 ROI 7 X start
Configuration
[15:8] x_end 0xEF 239 ROI 7 X end
Configuration
22 278 roi7_configuration1 0x0000 0 RW
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Table 36. REGISTER MAP
Address
Offset TypeDescription
Default
(Dec)
Default
(Hex)
Register NameBit FieldAddress
[10:0] y_start 0x000 0 ROI 7 Y start
Configuration
23 279 roi7_configuration2 0x04AF 1199 RW
[10:0] y_end 0x3AF 1199 ROI 7 Y end
Configuration
Reserved [Block Offset: 384]
0 384 reserved RW
[15:0] reserved Reserved
… … RW
… …
127 511 reserved RW
[15:0] reserved Reserved
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PACKAGE INFORMATION
Pin List
VITA 2000 has two output versions; V1-SN/SE (LVDS)
and V2-SN/SE (CMOS). The LVDS I/Os comply to the
TIA/EIA-644-A Standard and the CMOS I/Os have a 3.3 V
signal level. Table 37 and Table 38 show the pin list for both
versions.
Table 37. LIST FOR V1SN/SE LVDS INTERFACE
Pack Pin
No. Pin Name I/O Type Direction Description
1 gnd_33 Supply 3.3 V ground
2 vdd_33 Supply 3.3 V Supply
3 mosi CMOS Input SPI master out - slave in
4 miso CMOS Output SPI master in - slave out
5 sclk CMOS Input SPI clock
6 gnd_18 Supply 1.8 V ground
7 vdd_18 Supply 1.8 V supply
8 NC Not connected
9 clock_outn LVDS Output LVDS clock output (Negative)
10 clock_outp LVDS Output LVDS clock output (Positive)
11 doutn0 LVDS Output LVDS data output channel #0 (Negative)
12 doutp0 LVDS Output LVDS data output channel #0(Positive)
13 doutn1 LVDS Output LVDS data output channel #1 (Negative)
14 doutp1 LVDS Output LVDS data output channel #1(Positive)
15 doutn2 LVDS Output LVDS data output channel #2 (Negative)
16 doutp2 LVDS Output LVDS data output channel #2 (Positive)
17 doutn3 LVDS Output LVDS data output channel #3 (Negative)
18 doutp3 LVDS Output LVDS data output channel #3 (Positive)
19 syncn LVDS Output LVDS sync channel output (Negative)
20 syncp LVDS Output LVDS sync channel output (Positive)
21 vdd_33 Supply 3.3 V supply
22 gnd_33 Supply 3.3 V ground
23 gnd_18 Supply 1.8 V ground
24 vdd_18 Supply 1.8 V supply
25 lvds_clock_inn LVDS Input LVDS clock input (Negative)
26 lvds_clock_inp LVDS Input LVDS clock input (Positive)
27 clk_pll CMOS Input Reference clock input for PLL
28 vdd_18 Supply 1.8 V supply
29 gnd_18 Supply 1.8 V ground
30 ibias_master Analog I/O Master bias reference. Connect 47 k to gnd_33
31 vdd_33 Supply 3.3 V supply
32 gnd_33 Supply 3.3 V ground
33 vdd_pix_low Supply 1.8 V supply
34 vdd_pix Supply Pixel array supply (3.3 V)
35 gnd_colpc Supply Pixel array ground (0 V)
36 vdd_pix Supply Pixel array supply (3.3 V)
37 gnd_colpc Supply Pixel array ground (0 V)
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Table 37. LIST FOR V1SN/SE LVDS INTERFACE
Pack Pin
No. DescriptionDirectionI/O TypePin Name
38 gnd_33 Supply 3.3 V ground
39 vdd_33 Supply 3.3 V supply
40 vdd_pix_low Supply 1.8 V supply
41 gnd_colpc Supply Pixel array ground (0 V)
42 vdd_pix Supply Pixel array supply (3.3 V)
43 gnd_colpc Supply Pixel array ground (0 V)
44 vdd_pix Supply Pixel array supply (3.3 V)
45 trigger0 CMOS Input Trigger input #0
46 trigger1 CMOS Input Trigger input #1
47 vdd_pix_low Supply 1.8 V supply
48 trigger2 CMOS Input Trigger input #2
49 monitor0 CMOS Output Monitor output #0
50 monitor1 CMOS Output Monitor output #1
51 reset_n CMOS Input Sensor reset (active low)
52 ss_n CMOS Input SPI slave select (active low)
Table 38. PIN LIST FOR V2SN/SE CMOS INTERFACE
Pack Pin
No. Pin Name I/O Type Direction Description
1 gnd_33 Supply 3.3 V ground
2 vdd_33 Supply 3.3 V supply
3 mosi CMOS Input SPI master out - slave in
4 miso CMOS Output SPI master in - slave out
5 sclk CMOS Input SPI clock
6 gnd_18 Supply 1.8 V ground
7 vdd_18 Supply 1.8 V supply
8 NC Not connected
9 dout9 CMOS Output Data output bit #9
10 dout8 CMOS Output Data output bit #8
11 dout7 CMOS Output Data output bit #7
12 dout6 CMOS Output Data output bit #6
13 dout5 CMOS Output Data output bit #5
14 dout4 CMOS Output Data output bit #4
15 dout3 CMOS Output Data output bit #3
16 dout2 CMOS Output Data output bit #2
17 dout1 CMOS Output Data output bit #1
18 dout0 CMOS Output Data output bit #0
19 frame_valid CMOS Output Frame valid output
20 line_valid CMOS Output Line valid output
21 vdd_33 Supply 3.3 V supply
22 gnd_33 Supply 3.3 V ground
23 clk_out CMOS clock output
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Table 38. PIN LIST FOR V2SN/SE CMOS INTERFACE
Pack Pin
No. DescriptionDirectionI/O TypePin Name
24 vdd_18 Supply 1.8 V supply
25 lvds_clock_inn LVDS Input LVDS clock input (Negative)
26 lvds_clock_inp LVDS Input LVDS clock input (Positive)
27 clk_pll CMOS Input Reference clock input for PLL
28 vdd_18 Supply 1.8 V supply
29 gnd_18 Supply 1.8 V ground
30 ibias_master Analog I/O Master bias reference. Connect 47 k to gnd_33
31 vdd_33 Supply 3.3 V supply
32 gnd_33 Supply 3.3 V ground
33 vdd_pix_low Supply 1.8 V supply
34 vdd_pix Supply Pixel array supply (3.3 V)
35 gnd_colpc Supply Pixel array ground (0 V)
36 vdd_pix Supply Pixel array supply (3.3 V)
37 gnd_colpc Supply Pixel array ground (0 V)
38 gnd_33 Supply 3.3 V ground
39 vdd_33 Supply 3.3 V supply
40 vdd_pix_low Supply 1.8 V supply
41 gnd_colpc Supply Pixel array ground (0 V)
42 vdd_pix Supply Pixel array supply (3.3 V)
43 gnd_colpc Supply Pixel array ground (0 V)
44 vdd_pix Supply Pixel array supply (3.3 V)
45 trigger0 CMOS Input Trigger input #0
46 trigger1 CMOS Input Trigger input #1
47 vdd_pix_low Supply 1.8 V supply
48 trigger2 CMOS Input Trigger input #2
49 monitor0 CMOS Output Monitor output #0
50 monitor1 CMOS Output Monitor output #1
51 reset_n CMOS Input Sensor reset (active low)
52 ss_n CMOS Input SPI slave select (active low)
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Package Specification
Table 39. MECHANICAL SPECIFICATION FOR VITA 2000 CERAMIC LCC PACKAGE AND BARE DIE
Parameter Description Min Typ Max Units
Die
(Refer to Figure 43
showing Pin 1 refer-
ence as left center)
Die thickness NA 750 NA mm
Die Size 11 x 9.5 mm2
Die center, X offset to the center of package -50 0 50 mm
Die center, Y offset to the center of the package -50 0 50 mm
Die position, tilt to the Die Attach Plane -1 0 1 deg
Die rotation accuracy (referenced to die scribe and lead fin-
gers on package on all four sides)
-1 0 1 deg
Optical center referenced from the die/package center (X-dir) 4.8 mm
Optical center referenced from the die/package center (Y-dir) 1359.7 mm
Distance from PCB plane to top of the die surface 1.26 mm
Distance from top of the die surface to top of the glass lid 0.94 mm
Glass Lid
Specification
XY size (-10%) 19.05 x 19.05 (+10%) mm2
Thickness 0.5 0.55 0.6 mm
Spectral response range 400 1000 nm
Transmission of glass lid (refer to Figure 44) 92 %
Mechanical Shock JESD22-B104C; Condition G 2000 G
Vibration JESD22-B103B; Condition 1 20 2000 Hz
Mounting Profile Reflow profile according to J-STD-020D.1 260 °C
Recommended
Socket
Andon Electronics Corporation (www.andonelectronics.com) 620-52-SM-G10-L14-X
aotgo ago .6: and 7 , was: 8:8 3.. Izzznzzzznzzz «I + _\ _ w: v» 2 an a 9.6.. a. \ E n Ax l N N N V 9% I>LF>IF>I>LF>IF>I>I>IF m 2 2 « R. it 84 N 23 .0 .am 5 a . . _ a: z E ma.“ .0 omnnm ammo! Eamo—
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Package Outline Drawing
Figure 42. 52Pin LCC Package (dimensions in mm)
15.53 50. £115 [605 $0. $0.18 1905 so.— ‘25 —) + ‘38 www.0nseml.com
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Optical Center Information
The center of the die (CD) is the center of the cavity
The center of the die (CD) is exactly at 50% between the
outsides of the two outer seal rings
The center of the cavity is exactly at 50% between the
insides of the finger pads.
Die outer dimensions:
B4 is the reference for the Die (0,0) in mm
B1 is at (0,9500) mm
B2 is at (11000,9500) mm
B3 is at (11000,0) mm
Active Area outer dimensions
A1 is the at (880, 9006.535) mm
A2 is at (10129, 9006.535) mm
A3 is at (10129, 3212.935) mm
A4 is at (880, 3212.935) mm
Center of the Active Area
AA is at (5504.8, 6109.735) mm
Center of the Die
CD is at (5500, 4750) mm
Figure 43. Graphical Representation of the Optical Center
Transmission T [942] 1a 300 400 500 600 700 300 900 Principle curve" D:O,15mm Wavelength A [nm]
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Glass Lid
The VITA 2000 image sensor uses a glass lid without any
coatings. Figure 44 shows the transmission characteristics
of the glass lid.
As shown in Figure 44, no infrared attenuating color filter
glass is used. A filter must be provided in the optical path
when color devices are used (source:
http://www.pgo-online.com).
Figure 44. Transmission Characteristics of the Glass Lid
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ADDITIONAL REFERENCES AND RESOURCES
Application Notes and other resources can be found
linked to the product web page at www.onsemi.com.
Additional information on this device may also be available
in the Image Sensor Portal, accessible within the MyON
section of www.onsemi.com. A signed NDA is required to
access the Image Sensor Portal – please see your
ON Semiconductor sales representative for more
information.
For information on ESD and cover glass care and
cleanliness, please download the Application Note Image
Sensor Handling and Best Practices (AN52561/D) from
www.onsemi.com.
For quality and reliability information, please download
the Quality & Reliability Handbook (HBD851/D) from
www.onsemi.com.
For information on Standard terms and Conditions of
Sale, please download Terms and Conditions document
from www.onsemi.com.
For information on Return Material Authorization
procedures, please refer to the RMA Policy Procedure
document from www.onsemi.com.
The Product Acceptance Criteria document, which lists
criteria to which this device is tested prior to shipment, is
available upon request.
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SILICON ERRATA
This section describes the erratum for the VITA 2000
family.
Details include erratum trigger conditions, scope of
impact, available workaround, and silicon revision
applicability.
VITA 2000 Qualification Status
Production Silicon
VITA 2000 Erratum Summary
This table defines how the erratum applies to the
VITA 2000.
Items Part Number Silicon revision Fix Status
[1]. Higher Standby current than rat-
ed in data sheet
VITA 2000 family Production Silicon
(same as “ES2”)
Silicon fix planned
Higher Standby Current
PROBLEM DEFINITION
In all states except for ‘idle’ and ‘running’ (including
‘reset’) there can be abnormal high power consumption on
vdd_33, up to 300mW.
PARAMETERS AFFECTED
Power
TRIGGER CONDITION(S)
Entering an affected state (reset, low-power standby,
standby(1), standby(2)).
SCOPE OF IMPACT
High power consumption, not influencing performance
when grabbing images.
WORKAROUND
Maintain the device in ‘power-off’, ‘idle’ or ‘running’
modes.
FIX STATUS
The cause of this problem and its solution have been
identified. Silicon fix is planned to correct the deficiency.
COMPLETION DATE
Production silicon with Stand-by current fix is planned.
Items Part Number Silicon revision Fix Status
[2]. Rolling shutter mode has first line
brighter than the remainder rows in
uniform illumination
VITA 2000 family Production Silicon
(same as “ES2”)
No silicon fix planned
Rolling Shutter Mode: First row is brighter in uniform
illumination
PROBLEM DEFINITION
The first line(s) are brighter than the remainder rows in
uniform illumination due to blooming.
PARAMETERS AFFECTED
Image artifact: Brighter row(s)
TRIGGER CONDITION(S)
Artifact observed in rolling shutter mode only.
SCOPE OF IMPACT
First 1 to 5 rows may show the blooming effect. Refer to
the VITA 2000 Acceptance Criteria Specification for
production test criteria.
WORKAROUND
Maximum resolution of actual image is 1900 x 1195.
FIX STATUS
The cause of this problem has been identified. No silicon
fix is planned to correct the deficiency.
COMPLETION DATE
Not applicable.
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ACRONYMS
Acronym Description
ADC Analog-to-Digital Converter
AFE Analog Front End
BL Black pixel data
CDM Charged Device Model
CDS Correlated Double Sampling
CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
DAC Digital-to-Analog Converter
DDR Double Data Rate
DNL Differential Non-Llinearity
DS Double Sampling
DSNU Dark Signal Non-Uniformity
EIA Electronic Industries Alliance
ESD Electrostatic Discharge
FE Frame End
FF Fill Factor
FOT Frame Overhead Time
FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array
FPN Fixed Pattern Noise
FPS Frame per Second
FS Frame Start
HBM Human Body Model
IMG Image data (regular pixel data)
INL Integral Non-Linearity
Acronym Description
IP Intellectual Property
LE Line End
LS Line Start
LSB least significant bit
LVDS Low-Voltage Differential Signaling
MSB most significant bit
PGA Programmable Gain Amplifier
PLS Parasitic Light Sensitivity
PRBS Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence
PRNU Photo Response Non-Uniformity
QE Quantum Efficiency
RGB Red-Green-Blue
RMA Return Material Authorization
rms Root Mean Square
ROI Region of Interest
ROT Row Overhead Time
S/H Sample and Hold
SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio
SPI Serial Peripheral Interface
TIA Telecommunications Industry Association
TJJunction temperature
TR Training pattern
% RH Percent Relative Humidity
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GLOSSARY
conversion gain A constant that converts the number of electrons collected by a pixel into the voltage swing of the pixel.
Conversion gain = q/C where q is the charge of an electron (1.602E 19 Coulomb) and C is the capacitance
of the photodiode or sense node.
CDS Correlated double sampling. This is a method for sampling a pixel where the pixel voltage after reset is
sampled and subtracted from the voltage after exposure to light.
CFA Color filter array. The materials deposited on top of pixels that selectively transmit color.
DNL Differential non-linearity (for ADCs)
DSNU Dark signal non-uniformity. This parameter characterizes the degree of non-uniformity in dark leakage
currents, which can be a major source of fixed pattern noise.
fill-factor A parameter that characterizes the optically active percentage of a pixel. In theory, it is the ratio of the
actual QE of a pixel divided by the QE of a photodiode of equal area. In practice, it is never measured.
INL Integral nonlinearity (for ADCs)
IR Infrared. IR light has wavelengths in the approximate range 750 nm to 1 mm.
Lux Photometric unit of luminance (at 550 nm, 1lux = 1 lumen/m2 = 1/683 W/m2)
pixel noise Variation of pixel signals within a region of interest (ROI). The ROI typically is a rectangular portion of the
pixel array and may be limited to a single color plane.
photometric units Units for light measurement that take into account human physiology.
PLS Parasitic light sensitivity. Parasitic discharge of sampled information in pixels that have storage nodes.
PRNU Photo-response non-uniformity. This parameter characterizes the spread in response of pixels, which is a
source of FPN under illumination.
QE Quantum efficiency. This parameter characterizes the effectiveness of a pixel in capturing photons and
converting them into electrons. It is photon wavelength and pixel color dependent.
read noise Noise associated with all circuitry that measures and converts the voltage on a sense node or photodiode
into an output signal.
reset The process by which a pixel photodiode or sense node is cleared of electrons. ”Soft” reset occurs when
the reset transistor is operated below the threshold. ”Hard” reset occurs when the reset transistor is oper-
ated above threshold.
reset noise Noise due to variation in the reset level of a pixel. In 3T pixel designs, this noise has a component (in units
of volts) proportionality constant depending on how the pixel is reset (such as hard and soft). In 4T pixel
designs, reset noise can be removed with CDS.
responsivity The standard measure of photodiode performance (regardless of whether it is in an imager or not). Units
are typically A/W and are dependent on the incident light wavelength. Note that responsivity and sensitivity
are used interchangeably in image sensor characterization literature so it is best to check the units.
ROI Region of interest. The area within a pixel array chosen to characterize noise, signal, crosstalk, and so on.
The ROI can be the entire array or a small subsection; it can be confined to a single color plane.
sense node In 4T pixel designs, a capacitor used to convert charge into voltage. In 3T pixel designs it is the photodi-
ode itself.
sensitivity A measure of pixel performance that characterizes the rise of the photodiode or sense node signal in Volts
upon illumination with light. Units are typically V/(W/m2)/sec and are dependent on the incident light wave-
length. Sensitivity measurements are often taken with 550 nm incident light. At this wavelength, 1 683 lux
is equal to 1 W/m2; the units of sensitivity are quoted in V/lux/sec. Note that responsivity and sensitivity are
used interchangeably in image sensor characterization literature so it is best to check the units.
spectral response The photon wavelength dependence of sensitivity or responsivity.
SNR Signal-to-noise ratio. This number characterizes the ratio of the fundamental signal to the noise spectrum
up to half the Nyquist frequency.
temporal noise Noise that varies from frame to frame. In a video stream, temporal noise is visible as twinkling pixels.
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