PIC16F87xA Datasheet by Custom Computer Services Inc. (CCS)

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Q ‘MICROCHIP P|C1 6F87XA
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 1
PIC16F87XA
Devices Included in this Data Sheet:
High-Performance RISC CPU:
Only 35 single-word instructions to learn
All single-cycle instructions except for program
branches, which are two-cycle
Operating speed: DC – 20 MHz clock input
DC – 200 ns instruction cycle
Up to 8K x 14 words of Flash Program Memory,
Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM),
Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM Data Memory
Pinout compatible to other 28-pin or 40/44-pin
PIC16CXXX and PIC16FXXX microcontrollers
Peripheral Features:
Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler
Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler,
can be incremented during Sleep via external
crystal/clock
Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period
register, prescaler and postscaler
Two Capture, Compare, PWM modules
- Capture is 16-bit, max. resolution is 12.5 ns
- Compare is 16-bit, max. resolution is 200 ns
- PWM max. resolution is 10-bit
Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI
(Master mode) and I2C™(Master/Slave)
Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver
Transmitter (USART/SCI) with 9-bit address
detection
Parallel Slave Port (PSP) – 8 bits wide with
external RD, WR and CS controls (40/44-pin only)
Brown-out detection circuitry for
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
Analog Features:
10-bit, up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital
Converter (A/D)
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
Analog Comparator module with:
- Two analog comparators
- Programmable on-chip voltage reference
(VREF) module
- Programmable input multiplexing from device
inputs and internal voltage reference
- Comparator outputs are externally accessible
Special Microcontroller Features:
100,000 erase/write cycle Enhanced Flash
program memory typical
1,000,000 erase/write cycle Data EEPROM
memory typical
Data EEPROM Retention > 40 years
Self-reprogrammable under software control
In-Circuit Serial Programming™ (ICSP™)
via two pins
Single-supply 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming
Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC
oscillator for reliable operation
Programmable code protection
Power saving Sleep mode
Selectable oscillator options
In-Circuit Debug (ICD) via two pins
CMOS Technology:
Low-power, high-speed Flash/EEPROM
technology
Fully static design
Wide operating voltage range (2.0V to 5.5V)
Commercial and Industrial temperature ranges
Low-power consumption
• PIC16F873A
• PIC16F874A
•PIC16F876A
•PIC16F877A
Device
Program Memory Data
SRAM
(Bytes)
EEPROM
(Bytes) I/O 10-bit
A/D (ch) CCP
(PWM)
MSSP
USART Timers
8/16-bit Comparators
Bytes # Single Word
Instructions SPI Master
I2C
PIC16F873A 7.2K 4096 192 128 22 5 2 Yes Yes Yes 2/1 2
PIC16F874A 7.2K 4096 192 128 33 8 2 Yes Yes Yes 2/1 2
PIC16F876A 14.3K 8192 368 256 22 5 2 Yes Yes Yes 2/1 2
PIC16F877A 14.3K 8192 368 256 33 8 2 Yes Yes Yes 2/1 2
28/40/44-Pin Enhanced Flash Microcontrollers
IHIIII 3:: H::: IIIIIII HHHHHI IIIIIHIII
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 2 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Pin Diagrams
PIC16F873A/876A
10
11
2
3
4
5
6
1
8
7
9
12
13
14 15
16
17
18
19
20
23
24
25
26
27
28
22
21
MCLR/VPP
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA5/AN4/SS/C2OUT
VSS
OSC1/CLKI
OSC2/CLKO
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
RB7/PGD
RB6/PGC
RB5
RB4
RB3/PGM
RB2
RB1
RB0/INT
VDD
VSS
RC7/RX/DT
RC6/TX/CK
RC5/SDO
RC4/SDI/SDA
28-Pin PDIP, SOIC, SSOP
2
3
4
5
6
1
7
MCLR/VPP
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA5/AN4/SS/C2OUT
VSS
OSC1/CLKI 15
16
17
18
19
20
21 RB3/PGM
VDD
VSS
RB0/INT
RC7/RX/DT
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC5/SDO
RC6/TX/CK
23
24
25
26
27
28
22
RA1/AN1
RA0/AN0
RB7/PGD
RB6/PGC
RB5
RB4
10
11
8
9
12
13
14
28-Pin QFN
PIC16F873A
PIC16F876A
RB2
RB1
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
OSC2/CLKO
10
11
2
3
4
5
6
1
18
19
20
21
22
12
13
14
15
38
8
7
44
43
42
41
40
39
16
17
29
30
31
32
33
23
24
25
26
27
28
36
34
35
9
PIC16F874A
37
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA1/AN1
RA0/AN0
MCLR/VPP
RB3/PGM
RB7/PGD
RB6/PGC
RB5
RB4
NC RC6/TX/CK
RC5/SDO
RC4/SDI/SDA
RD3/PSP3
RD2/PSP2
RD1/PSP1
RD0/PSP0
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC2/CCP1
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
OSC2/CLKO
OSC1/CLKI
VSS
VSS
VDD
VDD
RE2/CS/AN7
RE1/WR/AN6
RE0/RD/AN5
RA5/AN4/SS/C2OUT
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RC7/RX/DT
RD4/PSP4
RD5/PSP5
RD6/PSP6
RD7/PSP7
VSS
VDD
VDD
RB0/INT
RB1
RB2
44-Pin QFN
PIC16F877A
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2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 3
PIC16F87XA
Pin Diagrams (Continued)
RB7/PGD
RB6/PGC
RB5
RB4
RB3/PGM
RB2
RB1
RB0/INT
VDD
VSS
RD7/PSP7
RD6/PSP6
RD5/PSP5
RD4/PSP4
RC7/RX/DT
RC6/TX/CK
RC5/SDO
RC4/SDI/SDA
RD3/PSP3
RD2/PSP2
MCLR/VPP
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA5/AN4/SS/C2OUT
RE0/RD/AN5
RE1/WR/AN6
RE2/CS/AN7
VDD
VSS
OSC1/CLKI
OSC2/CLKO
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
RD0/PSP0
RD1/PSP1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
PIC16F874A/877A
40-Pin PDIP
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
44
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
9
PIC16F874A
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA5/AN4/SS/C2OUT
RE0/RD/AN5
OSC1/CLKI
OSC2/CLKO
RC0/T1OSO/T1CK1
NC
RE1/WR/AN6
RE2/CS/AN7
VDD
VSS
RB3/PGM
RB2
RB1
RB0/INT
VDD
VSS
RD7/PSP7
RD6/PSP6
RD5/PSP5
RD4/PSP4
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA1/AN1
RA0/AN0
MCLR/VPP
NC
RB7/PGD
RB6/PGC
RB5
RB4
NC
NC
RC6/TX/CK
RC5/SDO
RC4/SDI/SDA
RD3/PSP3
RD2/PSP2
RD1/PSP1
RD0/PSP0
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC2/CCP1
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
10
11
2
3
4
5
6
1
18
19
20
21
22
12
13
14
15
38
8
7
44
43
42
41
40
39
16
17
29
30
31
32
33
23
24
25
26
27
28
36
34
35
9
PIC16F874A
37
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA1/AN1
RA0/AN0
MCLR/VPP
NC
RB7/PGD
RB6/PGC
RB5
RB4
NC RC6/TX/CK
RC5/SDO
RC4/SDI/SDA
RD3/PSP3
RD2/PSP2
RD1/PSP1
RD0/PSP0
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC2/CCP1
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
NC
NC
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
OSC2/CLKO
OSC1/CLKI
VSS
VDD
RE2/CS/AN7
RE1/WR/AN6
RE0/RD/AN5
RA5/AN4/SS/C2OUT
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RC7/RX/DT
RD4/PSP4
RD5/PSP5
RD6/PSP6
RD7/PSP7
VSS
VDD
RB0/INT
RB1
RB2
RB3/PGM
44-Pin PLCC
44-Pin TQFP
PIC16F877A
PIC16F877A
RC7/RX/DT
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 4 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Table of Contents
1.0 Device Overview......................................................................................................................................................................... 5
2.0 Memory Organization................................................................................................................................................................ 15
3.0 Data EEPROM and Flash Program Memory ............................................................................................................................ 33
4.0 I/O Ports.................................................................................................................................................................................... 41
5.0 Timer0 Module.......................................................................................................................................................................... 53
6.0 Timer1 Module.......................................................................................................................................................................... 57
7.0 Timer2 Module.......................................................................................................................................................................... 61
8.0 Capture/Compare/PWM Modules............................................................................................................................................. 63
9.0 Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) Module..................................................................................................................... 71
10.0 Addressable Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) ............................................................ 111
11.0 Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Module .............................................................................................................................. 127
12.0 Comparator Module ................................................................................................................................................................ 135
13.0 Comparator Voltage Reference Module ................................................................................................................................. 141
14.0 Special Features of the CPU .................................................................................................................................................. 143
15.0 Instruction Set Summary......................................................................................................................................................... 159
16.0 Development Support ............................................................................................................................................................. 167
17.0 Electrical Characteristics......................................................................................................................................................... 173
18.0 DC and AC Characteristics Graphs and Tables ..................................................................................................................... 197
19.0 Packaging Information............................................................................................................................................................ 209
Appendix A: Revision History ............................................................................................................................................................ 219
Appendix B: Device Differences........................................................................................................................................................ 219
Appendix C: Conversion Considerations........................................................................................................................................... 220
Index ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 221
On-Line Support................................................................................................................................................................................ 229
Systems Information and Upgrade Hot Line ..................................................................................................................................... 229
Reader Response ............................................................................................................................................................................. 230
PIC16F87XA Product Identification System...................................................................................................................................... 231
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2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 5
PIC16F87XA
1.0 DEVICE OVERVIEW
This document contains device specific information
about the following devices:
• PIC16F873A
• PIC16F874A
• PIC16F876A
• PIC16F877A
PIC16F873A/876A devices are available only in 28-pin
packages, while PIC16F874A/877A devices are avail-
able in 40-pin and 44-pin packages. All devices in the
PIC16F87XA family share common architecture with
the following differences:
The PIC16F873A and PIC16F874A have one-half
of the total on-chip memory of the PIC16F876A
and PIC16F877A
The 28-pin devices have three I/O ports, while the
40/44-pin devices have five
The 28-pin devices have fourteen interrupts, while
the 40/44-pin devices have fifteen
The 28-pin devices have five A/D input channels,
while the 40/44-pin devices have eight
The Parallel Slave Port is implemented only on
the 40/44-pin devices
The available features are summarized in Table 1-1.
Block diagrams of the PIC16F873A/876A and
PIC16F874A/877A devices are provided in Figure 1-1
and Figure 1-2, respectively. The pinouts for these
device families are listed in Table 1-2 and Table 1-3.
Additional information may be found in the PIC® Mid-
Range Reference Manual (DS33023), which may be
obtained from your local Microchip Sales Representative
or downloaded from the Microchip web site. The Refer-
ence Manual should be considered a complementary
document to this data sheet and is highly recommended
reading for a better understanding of the device architec-
ture and operation of the peripheral modules.
TABLE 1-1: PIC16F87XA DEVICE FEATURES
Key Features PIC16F873A PIC16F874A PIC16F876A PIC16F877A
Operating Frequency DC – 20 MHz DC – 20 MHz DC – 20 MHz DC – 20 MHz
Resets (and Delays) POR, BOR
(PWRT, OST) POR, BOR
(PWRT, OST) POR, BOR
(PWRT, OST) POR, BOR
(PWRT, OST)
Flash Program Memory
(14-bit words) 4K 4K 8K 8K
Data Memory (bytes) 192 192 368 368
EEPROM Data Memory (bytes) 128 128 256 256
Interrupts 14 15 14 15
I/O Ports Ports A, B, C Ports A, B, C, D, E Ports A, B, C Ports A, B, C, D, E
Timers 3333
Capture/Compare/PWM modules 2 2 2 2
Serial Communications MSSP, USART MSSP, USART MSSP, USART MSSP, USART
Parallel Communications PSP PSP
10-bit Analog-to-Digital Module 5 input channels 8 input channels 5 input channels 8 input channels
Analog Comparators 2 2 2 2
Instruction Set 35 Instructions 35 Instructions 35 Instructions 35 Instructions
Packages 28-pin PDIP
28-pin SOIC
28-pin SSOP
28-pin QFN
40-pin PDIP
44-pin PLCC
44-pin TQFP
44-pin QFN
28-pin PDIP
28-pin SOIC
28-pin SSOP
28-pin QFN
40-pin PDIP
44-pin PLCC
44-pin TQFP
44-pin QFN
W H H’ 'H H WWW i¥ {L @
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 6 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 1-1: PIC16F873A/876A BLOCK DIAGRAM
Flash
13 Data Bus 8
14
Program
Bus
Instruction reg
Program Counter
8 Level Stack
(13-bit)
RAM
File
Registers
Direct Addr 7
RAM Addr(1) 9
Addr MUX
Indirect
Addr
FSR reg
Status reg
MUX
ALU
W reg
Power-up
Timer
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
Power-on
Reset
Watchdog
Timer
Instruction
Decode &
Control
Timing
Generation
OSC1/CLKI
OSC2/CLKO
MCLR VDD, VSS
PORTA
PORTB
PORTC
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA5/AN4/SS/C2OUT
RB0/INT
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC5/SDO
RC6/TX/CK
RC7/RX/DT
8
8
Brown-out
Reset
Note 1: Higher order bits are from the Status register.
USART
CCP1,2 Synchronous
10-bit A/D
Timer0 Timer1 Timer2
Serial Port
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA1/AN1
RA0/AN0
8
3
Data EEPROM
RB1
RB2
RB3/PGM
RB4
RB5
RB6/PGC
RB7/PGD
In-Circuit
Debugger
Low-Voltage
Programming
Comparator Voltage
Reference
Device Program Flash Data Memory Data EEPROM
PIC16F873A 4K words 192 Bytes 128 Bytes
PIC16F876A 8K words 368 Bytes 256 Bytes
Program
Memory
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 7
PIC16F87XA
FIGURE 1-2: PIC16F874A/877A BLOCK DIAGRAM
13 Data Bus 8
14
Program
Bus
Instruction reg
Program Counter
8 Level Stack
(13-bit)
RAM
File
Registers
Direct Addr 7
RAM Addr(1) 9
Addr MUX
Indirect
Addr
FSR reg
Status reg
MUX
ALU
W reg
Power-up
Timer
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
Power-on
Reset
Watchdog
Timer
Instruction
Decode &
Control
Timing
Generation
OSC1/CLKI
OSC2/CLKO
MCLR VDD, VSS
PORTA
PORTB
PORTC
PORTD
PORTE
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA5/AN4/SS/C2OUT
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC5/SDO
RC6/TX/CK
RC7/RX/DT
RE0/RD/AN5
RE1/WR/AN6
RE2/CS/AN7
8
8
Brown-out
Reset
Note 1: Higher order bits are from the Status register.
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA1/AN1
RA0/AN0
Parallel
8
3
RB0/INT
RB1
RB2
RB3/PGM
RB4
RB5
RB6/PGC
RB7/PGD
In-Circuit
Debugger
Low-Voltage
Programming
RD0/PSP0
RD1/PSP1
RD2/PSP2
RD3/PSP3
RD4/PSP4
RD5/PSP5
RD6/PSP6
RD7/PSP7
USART
CCP1,2 Synchronous
10-bit A/D
Timer0 Timer1 Timer2
Serial Port
Data EEPROM Comparator Voltage
Reference
Device Program Flash Data Memory Data EEPROM
PIC16F874A 4K words 192 Bytes 128 Bytes
PIC16F877A 8K words 368 Bytes 256 Bytes
Flash
Program
Memory
Slave Port
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 8 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
TABLE 1-2: PIC16F873A/876A PINOUT DESCRIPTION
Pin Name PDIP, SOIC,
SSOP Pin# QFN
Pin# I/O/P
Type Buffer
Type Description
OSC1/CLKI
OSC1
CLKI
96
I
I
ST/CMOS(3) Oscillator crystal or external clock input.
Oscillator crystal input or external clock source input. ST
buffer when configured in RC mode; otherwise CMOS.
External clock source input. Always associated with pin
function OSC1 (see OSC1/CLKI, OSC2/CLKO pins).
OSC2/CLKO
OSC2
CLKO
10 7
O
O
Oscillator crystal or clock output.
Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator
in Crystal Oscillator mode.
In RC mode, OSC2 pin outputs CLKO, which has 1/4 the
frequency of OSC1 and denotes the instruction cycle rate.
MCLR/VPP
MCLR
VPP
126
I
P
ST Master Clear (input) or programming voltage (output).
Master Clear (Reset) input. This pin is an active low Reset
to the device.
Programming voltage input.
PORTA is a bidirectional I/O port.
RA0/AN0
RA0
AN0
227
I/O
I
TTL
Digital I/O.
Analog input 0.
RA1/AN1
RA1
AN1
328
I/O
I
TTL
Digital I/O.
Analog input 1.
RA2/AN2/VREF-/
CVREF
RA2
AN2
VREF-
CVREF
41
I/O
I
I
O
TTL
Digital I/O.
Analog input 2.
A/D reference voltage (Low) input.
Comparator VREF output.
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA3
AN3
VREF+
52
I/O
I
I
TTL
Digital I/O.
Analog input 3.
A/D reference voltage (High) input.
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA4
T0CKI
C1OUT
63
I/O
I
O
ST
Digital I/O – Open-drain when configured as output.
Timer0 external clock input.
Comparator 1 output.
RA5/AN4/SS/C2OUT
RA5
AN4
SS
C2OUT
74
I/O
I
I
O
TTL
Digital I/O.
Analog input 4.
SPI slave select input.
Comparator 2 output.
Legend: I = input O = output I/O = input/output P = power
— = Not used TTL = TTL input ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in Serial Programming mode.
3: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC Oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 9
PIC16F87XA
PORTB is a bidirectional I/O port. PORTB can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-ups on all inputs.
RB0/INT
RB0
INT
21 18
I/O
I
TTL/ST(1)
Digital I/O.
External interrupt.
RB1 22 19 I/O TTL Digital I/O.
RB2 23 20 I/O TTL Digital I/O.
RB3/PGM
RB3
PGM
24 21
I/O
I
TTL
Digital I/O.
Low-voltage (single-supply) ICSP programming enable pin.
RB4 25 22 I/O TTL Digital I/O.
RB5 26 23 I/O TTL Digital I/O.
RB6/PGC
RB6
PGC
27 24
I/O
I
TTL/ST(2)
Digital I/O.
In-circuit debugger and ICSP programming clock.
RB7/PGD
RB7
PGD
28 25
I/O
I/O
TTL/ST(2)
Digital I/O.
In-circuit debugger and ICSP programming data.
PORTC is a bidirectional I/O port.
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC0
T1OSO
T1CKI
11 8
I/O
O
I
ST
Digital I/O.
Timer1 oscillator output.
Timer1 external clock input.
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
RC1
T1OSI
CCP2
12 9
I/O
I
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
Timer1 oscillator input.
Capture2 input, Compare2 output, PWM2 output.
RC2/CCP1
RC2
CCP1
13 10
I/O
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
Capture1 input, Compare1 output, PWM1 output.
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC3
SCK
SCL
14 11
I/O
I/O
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
Synchronous serial clock input/output for SPI mode.
Synchronous serial clock input/output for I2C mode.
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC4
SDI
SDA
15 12
I/O
I
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
SPI data in.
I2C data I/O.
RC5/SDO
RC5
SDO
16 13
I/O
O
ST
Digital I/O.
SPI data out.
RC6/TX/CK
RC6
TX
CK
17 14
I/O
O
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
USART asynchronous transmit.
USART1 synchronous clock.
RC7/RX/DT
RC7
RX
DT
18 15
I/O
I
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
USART asynchronous receive.
USART synchronous data.
VSS 8, 19 5, 6 P Ground reference for logic and I/O pins.
VDD 20 17 P Positive supply for logic and I/O pins.
TABLE 1-2: PIC16F873A/876A PINOUT DESCRIPTION (CONTINUED)
Pin Name PDIP, SOIC,
SSOP Pin# QFN
Pin# I/O/P
Type Buffer
Type Description
Legend: I = input O = output I/O = input/output P = power
— = Not used TTL = TTL input ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in Serial Programming mode.
3: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC Oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 10 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
TABLE 1-3: PIC16F874A/877A PINOUT DESCRIPTION
Pin Name PDIP
Pin# PLCC
Pin# TQFP
Pin# QFN
Pin# I/O/P
Type Buffer
Type Description
OSC1/CLKI
OSC1
CLKI
13 14 30 32
I
I
ST/CMOS(4) Oscillator crystal or external clock input.
Oscillator crystal input or external clock source
input. ST buffer when configured in RC mode;
otherwise CMOS.
External clock source input. Always associated
with pin function OSC1 (see OSC1/CLKI,
OSC2/CLKO pins).
OSC2/CLKO
OSC2
CLKO
14 15 31 33
O
O
Oscillator crystal or clock output.
Oscillator crystal output.
Connects to crystal or resonator in Crystal
Oscillator mode.
In RC mode, OSC2 pin outputs CLKO, which
has 1/4 the frequency of OSC1 and denotes the
instruction cycle rate.
MCLR/VPP
MCLR
VPP
1 2 18 18
I
P
ST Master Clear (input) or programming voltage (output).
Master Clear (Reset) input. This pin is an active
low Reset to the device.
Programming voltage input.
PORTA is a bidirectional I/O port.
RA0/AN0
RA0
AN0
2 3 19 19
I/O
I
TTL
Digital I/O.
Analog input 0.
RA1/AN1
RA1
AN1
3 4 20 20
I/O
I
TTL
Digital I/O.
Analog input 1.
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA2
AN2
VREF-
CVREF
4 5 21 21
I/O
I
I
O
TTL
Digital I/O.
Analog input 2.
A/D reference voltage (Low) input.
Comparator VREF output.
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA3
AN3
VREF+
5 6 22 22
I/O
I
I
TTL
Digital I/O.
Analog input 3.
A/D reference voltage (High) input.
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA4
T0CKI
C1OUT
6 7 23 23
I/O
I
O
ST
Digital I/O – Open-drain when configured as
output.
Timer0 external clock input.
Comparator 1 output.
RA5/AN4/SS/C2OUT
RA5
AN4
SS
C2OUT
7 8 24 24
I/O
I
I
O
TTL
Digital I/O.
Analog input 4.
SPI slave select input.
Comparator 2 output.
Legend: I = input O = output I/O = input/output P = power
— = Not used TTL = TTL input ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in Serial Programming mode.
3: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC Oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 11
PIC16F87XA
PORTB is a bidirectional I/O port. PORTB can be
software programmed for internal weak pull-up on all
inputs.
RB0/INT
RB0
INT
33 36 8 9
I/O
I
TTL/ST(1)
Digital I/O.
External interrupt.
RB1 34 37 9 10 I/O TTL Digital I/O.
RB2 35 38 10 11 I/O TTL Digital I/O.
RB3/PGM
RB3
PGM
36 39 11 12
I/O
I
TTL
Digital I/O.
Low-voltage ICSP programming enable pin.
RB4 37 41 14 14 I/O TTL Digital I/O.
RB5 38 42 15 15 I/O TTL Digital I/O.
RB6/PGC
RB6
PGC
39 43 16 16
I/O
I
TTL/ST(2)
Digital I/O.
In-circuit debugger and ICSP programming clock.
RB7/PGD
RB7
PGD
40 44 17 17
I/O
I/O
TTL/ST(2)
Digital I/O.
In-circuit debugger and ICSP programming data.
TABLE 1-3: PIC16F874A/877A PINOUT DESCRIPTION (CONTINUED)
Pin Name PDIP
Pin# PLCC
Pin# TQFP
Pin# QFN
Pin# I/O/P
Type Buffer
Type Description
Legend: I = input O = output I/O = input/output P = power
— = Not used TTL = TTL input ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in Serial Programming mode.
3: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC Oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 12 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PORTC is a bidirectional I/O port.
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC0
T1OSO
T1CKI
15 16 32 34
I/O
O
I
ST
Digital I/O.
Timer1 oscillator output.
Timer1 external clock input.
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
RC1
T1OSI
CCP2
16 18 35 35
I/O
I
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
Timer1 oscillator input.
Capture2 input, Compare2 output, PWM2 output.
RC2/CCP1
RC2
CCP1
17 19 36 36
I/O
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
Capture1 input, Compare1 output, PWM1 output.
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC3
SCK
SCL
18 20 37 37
I/O
I/O
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
Synchronous serial clock input/output for SPI
mode.
Synchronous serial clock input/output for I2C
mode.
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC4
SDI
SDA
23 25 42 42
I/O
I
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
SPI data in.
I2C data I/O.
RC5/SDO
RC5
SDO
24 26 43 43
I/O
O
ST
Digital I/O.
SPI data out.
RC6/TX/CK
RC6
TX
CK
25 27 44 44
I/O
O
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
USART asynchronous transmit.
USART1 synchronous clock.
RC7/RX/DT
RC7
RX
DT
26 29 1 1
I/O
I
I/O
ST
Digital I/O.
USART asynchronous receive.
USART synchronous data.
TABLE 1-3: PIC16F874A/877A PINOUT DESCRIPTION (CONTINUED)
Pin Name PDIP
Pin# PLCC
Pin# TQFP
Pin# QFN
Pin# I/O/P
Type Buffer
Type Description
Legend: I = input O = output I/O = input/output P = power
— = Not used TTL = TTL input ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in Serial Programming mode.
3: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC Oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 13
PIC16F87XA
PORTD is a bidirectional I/O port or Parallel Slave
Port when interfacing to a microprocessor bus.
RD0/PSP0
RD0
PSP0
19 21 38 38
I/O
I/O
ST/TTL(3)
Digital I/O.
Parallel Slave Port data.
RD1/PSP1
RD1
PSP1
20 22 39 39
I/O
I/O
ST/TTL(3)
Digital I/O.
Parallel Slave Port data.
RD2/PSP2
RD2
PSP2
21 23 40 40
I/O
I/O
ST/TTL(3)
Digital I/O.
Parallel Slave Port data.
RD3/PSP3
RD3
PSP3
22 24 41 41
I/O
I/O
ST/TTL(3)
Digital I/O.
Parallel Slave Port data.
RD4/PSP4
RD4
PSP4
27 30 2 2
I/O
I/O
ST/TTL(3)
Digital I/O.
Parallel Slave Port data.
RD5/PSP5
RD5
PSP5
28 31 3 3
I/O
I/O
ST/TTL(3)
Digital I/O.
Parallel Slave Port data.
RD6/PSP6
RD6
PSP6
29 32 4 4
I/O
I/O
ST/TTL(3)
Digital I/O.
Parallel Slave Port data.
RD7/PSP7
RD7
PSP7
30 33 5 5
I/O
I/O
ST/TTL(3)
Digital I/O.
Parallel Slave Port data.
PORTE is a bidirectional I/O port.
RE0/RD/AN5
RE0
RD
AN5
8 9 25 25
I/O
I
I
ST/TTL(3)
Digital I/O.
Read control for Parallel Slave Port.
Analog input 5.
RE1/WR/AN6
RE1
WR
AN6
9102626
I/O
I
I
ST/TTL(3)
Digital I/O.
Write control for Parallel Slave Port.
Analog input 6.
RE2/CS/AN7
RE2
CS
AN7
10 11 27 27
I/O
I
I
ST/TTL(3)
Digital I/O.
Chip select control for Parallel Slave Port.
Analog input 7.
VSS 12, 31 13, 34 6, 29 6, 30,
31
P Ground reference for logic and I/O pins.
VDD 11, 32 12, 35 7, 28 7, 8,
28, 29
P Positive supply for logic and I/O pins.
NC 1, 17,
28, 40
12,13,
33, 34
13 These pins are not internally connected. These pins
should be left unconnected.
TABLE 1-3: PIC16F874A/877A PINOUT DESCRIPTION (CONTINUED)
Pin Name PDIP
Pin# PLCC
Pin# TQFP
Pin# QFN
Pin# I/O/P
Type Buffer
Type Description
Legend: I = input O = output I/O = input/output P = power
— = Not used TTL = TTL input ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in Serial Programming mode.
3: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC Oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 14 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
NOTES:
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 15
PIC16F87XA
2.0 MEMORY ORGANIZATION
There are three memory blocks in each of the
PIC16F87XA devices. The program memory and data
memory have separate buses so that concurrent
access can occur and is detailed in this section. The
EEPROM data memory block is detailed in Section 3.0
“Data EEPROM and Flash Program Memory”.
Additional information on device memory may be found
in the PIC® Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual
(DS33023).
FIGURE 2-1: PIC16F876A/877A
PROGRAM MEMORY MAP
AND STACK
2.1 Program Memory Organization
The PIC16F87XA devices have a 13-bit program coun-
ter capable of addressing an 8K word x 14 bit program
memory space. The PIC16F876A/877A devices have
8K words x 14 bits of Flash program memory, while
PIC16F873A/874A devices have 4K words x 14 bits.
Accessing a location above the physically implemented
address will cause a wraparound.
The Reset vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is
at 0004h.
FIGURE 2-2: PIC16F873A/874A
PROGRAM MEMORY MAP
AND STACK
PC<12:0>
13
0000h
0004h
0005h
Stack Level 1
Stack Level 8
Reset Vector
Interrupt Vector
On-Chip
CALL, RETURN
RETFIE, RETLW
1FFFh
Stack Level 2
Program
Memory
Page 0
Page 1
Page 2
Page 3
07FFh
0800h
0FFFh
1000h
17FFh
1800h
PC<12:0>
13
0000h
0004h
0005h
Stack Level 1
Stack Level 8
Reset Vector
Interrupt Vector
On-Chip
CALL, RETURN
RETFIE, RETLW
1FFFh
Stack Level 2
Program
Memory
Page 0
Page 1
07FFh
0800h
0FFFh
1000h
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 16 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
2.2 Data Memory Organization
The data memory is partitioned into multiple banks
which contain the General Purpose Registers and the
Special Function Registers. Bits RP1 (Status<6>) and
RP0 (Status<5>) are the bank select bits.
Each bank extends up to 7Fh (128 bytes). The lower
locations of each bank are reserved for the Special
Function Registers. Above the Special Function Regis-
ters are General Purpose Registers, implemented as
static RAM. All implemented banks contain Special
Function Registers. Some frequently used Special
Function Registers from one bank may be mirrored in
another bank for code reduction and quicker access.
2.2.1 GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER
FILE
The register file can be accessed either directly, or
indirectly, through the File Select Register (FSR).
RP1:RP0 Bank
00 0
01 1
10 2
11 3
Note: The EEPROM data memory description can
be found in Section 3.0 “Data EEPROM
and Flash Program Memory” of this data
sheet.
FOL FSR
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 17
PIC16F87XA
FIGURE 2-3: PIC16F876A/877A REGISTER FILE MAP
Indirect addr.(*)
TMR0
PCL
STATUS
FSR
PORTA
PORTB
PORTC
PCLATH
INTCON
PIR1
TMR1L
TMR1H
T1CON
TMR2
T2CON
SSPBUF
SSPCON
CCPR1L
CCPR1H
CCP1CON
OPTION_REG
PCL
STATUS
FSR
TRISA
TRISB
TRISC
PCLATH
INTCON
PIE1
PCON
PR2
SSPADD
SSPSTAT
00h
01h
02h
03h
04h
05h
06h
07h
08h
09h
0Ah
0Bh
0Ch
0Dh
0Eh
0Fh
10h
11h
12h
13h
14h
15h
16h
17h
18h
19h
1Ah
1Bh
1Ch
1Dh
1Eh
1Fh
80h
81h
82h
83h
84h
85h
86h
87h
88h
89h
8Ah
8Bh
8Ch
8Dh
8Eh
8Fh
90h
91h
92h
93h
94h
95h
96h
97h
98h
99h
9Ah
9Bh
9Ch
9Dh
9Eh
9Fh
20h A0h
7Fh FFh
Bank 0 Bank 1
Unimplemented data memory locations, read as ‘0’.
* Not a physical register.
Note 1: These registers are not implemented on the PIC16F876A.
2: These registers are reserved; maintain these registers clear.
File
Address
Indirect addr.(*) Indirect addr.(*)
PCL
STATUS
FSR
PCLATH
INTCON
PCL
STATUS
FSR
PCLATH
INTCON
100h
101h
102h
103h
104h
105h
106h
107h
108h
109h
10Ah
10Bh
10Ch
10Dh
10Eh
10Fh
110h
111h
112h
113h
114h
115h
116h
117h
118h
119h
11Ah
11Bh
11Ch
11Dh
11Eh
11Fh
180h
181h
182h
183h
184h
185h
186h
187h
188h
189h
18Ah
18Bh
18Ch
18Dh
18Eh
18Fh
190h
191h
192h
193h
194h
195h
196h
197h
198h
199h
19Ah
19Bh
19Ch
19Dh
19Eh
19Fh
120h 1A0h
17Fh 1FFh
Bank 2 Bank 3
Indirect addr.(*)
PORTD(1)
PORTE(1) TRISD(1)
ADRESL
TRISE(1)
TMR0 OPTION_REG
PIR2 PIE2
RCSTA
TXREG
RCREG
CCPR2L
CCPR2H
CCP2CON
ADRESH
ADCON0
TXSTA
SPBRG
ADCON1
General
Purpose
Register
General
Purpose
Register
General
Purpose
Register
General
Purpose
Register
1EFh
1F0h
accesses
70h - 7Fh
EFh
F0h
accesses
70h-7Fh
16Fh
170h
accesses
70h-7Fh
General
Purpose
Register
General
Purpose
Register
TRISB
PORTB
96 Bytes
80 Bytes 80 Bytes 80 Bytes
16 Bytes 16 Bytes
SSPCON2
EEDATA
EEADR
EECON1
EECON2
EEDATH
EEADRH
Reserved(2)
Reserved(2)
File
Address File
Address File
Address
CMCON
CVRCON
FCL STATU S FSR
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 18 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 2-4: PIC16F873A/874A REGISTER FILE MAP
Indirect addr.(*)
TMR0
PCL
STATUS
FSR
PORTA
PORTB
PORTC
PCLATH
INTCON
PIR1
TMR1L
TMR1H
T1CON
TMR2
T2CON
SSPBUF
SSPCON
CCPR1L
CCPR1H
CCP1CON
OPTION_REG
PCL
STATUS
FSR
TRISA
TRISB
TRISC
PCLATH
INTCON
PIE1
PCON
PR2
SSPADD
SSPSTAT
00h
01h
02h
03h
04h
05h
06h
07h
08h
09h
0Ah
0Bh
0Ch
0Dh
0Eh
0Fh
10h
11h
12h
13h
14h
15h
16h
17h
18h
19h
1Ah
1Bh
1Ch
1Dh
1Eh
1Fh
80h
81h
82h
83h
84h
85h
86h
87h
88h
89h
8Ah
8Bh
8Ch
8Dh
8Eh
8Fh
90h
91h
92h
93h
94h
95h
96h
97h
98h
99h
9Ah
9Bh
9Ch
9Dh
9Eh
9Fh
20h A0h
7Fh FFh
Bank 0 Bank 1
Indirect addr.(*) Indirect addr.(*)
PCL
STATUS
FSR
PCLATH
INTCON
PCL
STATUS
FSR
PCLATH
INTCON
100h
101h
102h
103h
104h
105h
106h
107h
108h
109h
10Ah
10Bh
180h
181h
182h
183h
184h
185h
186h
187h
188h
189h
18Ah
18Bh
17Fh 1FFh
Bank 2 Bank 3
Indirect addr.(*)
PORTD(1)
PORTE(1) TRISD(1)
ADRESL
TRISE(1)
TMR0 OPTION_REG
PIR2 PIE2
RCSTA
TXREG
RCREG
CCPR2L
CCPR2H
CCP2CON
ADRESH
ADCON0
TXSTA
SPBRG
ADCON1
General
Purpose
Register
General
Purpose
Register
1EFh
1F0h
accesses
A0h - FFh
16Fh
170h
accesses
20h-7Fh
TRISB
PORTB
96 Bytes 96 Bytes
SSPCON2
10Ch
10Dh
10Eh
10Fh
110h
18Ch
18Dh
18Eh
18Fh
190h
EEDATA
EEADR
EECON1
EECON2
EEDATH
EEADRH
Reserved(2)
Reserved(2)
Unimplemented data memory locations, read as ‘0’.
* Not a physical register.
Note 1: These registers are not implemented on the PIC16F873A.
2: These registers are reserved; maintain these registers clear.
120h 1A0h
File
Address
File
Address File
Address
File
Address
CMCON
CVRCON
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 19
PIC16F87XA
2.2.2 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS
The Special Function Registers are registers used by
the CPU and peripheral modules for controlling the
desired operation of the device. These registers are
implemented as static RAM. A list of these registers is
given in Table 2-1.
The Special Function Registers can be classified into
two sets: core (CPU) and peripheral. Those registers
associated with the core functions are described in
detail in this section. Those related to the operation of
the peripheral features are described in detail in the
peripheral features section.
TABLE 2-1: SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY
Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on:
POR, BOR Details
on page:
Bank 0
00h(3) INDF Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) 0000 0000 31, 150
01h TMR0 Timer0 Module Register xxxx xxxx 55, 150
02h(3) PCL Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte 0000 0000 30, 150
03h(3) STATUS IRP RP1 RP0 TO PD ZDCC0001 1xxx 22, 150
04h(3) FSR Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer xxxx xxxx 31, 150
05h PORTA PORTA Data Latch when written: PORTA pins when read --0x 0000 43, 150
06h PORTB PORTB Data Latch when written: PORTB pins when read xxxx xxxx 45, 150
07h PORTC PORTC Data Latch when written: PORTC pins when read xxxx xxxx 47, 150
08h(4) PORTD PORTD Data Latch when written: PORTD pins when read xxxx xxxx 48, 150
09h(4) PORTE — — RE2 RE1 RE0 ---- -xxx 49, 150
0Ah(1,3) PCLATH — — Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter ---0 0000 30, 150
0Bh(3) INTCON GIE PEIE TMR0IE INTE RBIE TMR0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 24, 150
0Ch PIR1 PSPIF(3) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 26, 150
0Dh PIR2 —CMIF—EEIFBCLIF—CCP2IF-0-0 0--0 28, 150
0Eh TMR1L Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register xxxx xxxx 60, 150
0Fh TMR1H Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register xxxx xxxx 60, 150
10h T1CON T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON --00 0000 57, 150
11h TMR2 Timer2 Module Register 0000 0000 62, 150
12h T2CON TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 -000 0000 61, 150
13h SSPBUF Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register xxxx xxxx 79, 150
14h SSPCON WCOL SSPOV SSPEN CKP SSPM3 SSPM2 SSPM1 SSPM0 0000 0000 82, 82,
150
15h CCPR1L Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 (LSB) xxxx xxxx 63, 150
16h CCPR1H Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 (MSB) xxxx xxxx 63, 150
17h CCP1CON CCP1X CCP1Y CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 --00 0000 64, 150
18h RCSTA SPEN RX9 SREN CREN ADDEN FERR OERR RX9D 0000 000x 112, 150
19h TXREG USART Transmit Data Register 0000 0000 118, 150
1Ah RCREG USART Receive Data Register 0000 0000 118, 150
1Bh CCPR2L Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 (LSB) xxxx xxxx 63, 150
1Ch CCPR2H Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 (MSB) xxxx xxxx 63, 150
1Dh CCP2CON CCP2X CCP2Y CCP2M3 CCP2M2 CCP2M1 CCP2M0 --00 0000 64, 150
1Eh ADRESH A/D Result Register High Byte xxxx xxxx 133, 150
1Fh ADCON0 ADCS1 ADCS0 CHS2 CHS1 CHS0 GO/DONE —ADON0000 00-0 127, 150
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8>, whose
contents are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter.
2: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on PIC16F873A/876A devices; always maintain these bits clear.
3: These registers can be addressed from any bank.
4: PORTD, PORTE, TRISD and TRISE are not implemented on PIC16F873A/876A devices, read as ‘0’.
5: Bit 4 of EEADRH implemented only on the PIC16F876A/877A devices.
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 20 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Bank 1
80h(3) INDF Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) 0000 0000 31, 150
81h OPTION_REG RBPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0 1111 1111 23, 150
82h(3) PCL Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte 0000 0000 30, 150
83h(3) STATUS IRP RP1 RP0 TO PD ZDCC0001 1xxx 22, 150
84h(3) FSR Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer xxxx xxxx 31, 150
85h TRISA PORTA Data Direction Register --11 1111 43, 150
86h TRISB PORTB Data Direction Register 1111 1111 45, 150
87h TRISC PORTC Data Direction Register 1111 1111 47, 150
88h(4) TRISD PORTD Data Direction Register 1111 1111 48, 151
89h(4) TRISE IBF OBF IBOV PSPMODE PORTE Data Direction bits 0000 -111 50, 151
8Ah(1,3) PCLATH — — Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter ---0 0000 30, 150
8Bh(3) INTCON GIE PEIE TMR0IE INTE RBIE TMR0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 24, 150
8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(2) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 25, 151
8Dh PIE2 —CMIE EEIE BCLIE CCP2IE -0-0 0--0 27, 151
8Eh PCON — — —PORBOR ---- --qq 29, 151
8Fh Unimplemented — —
90h Unimplemented — —
91h SSPCON2 GCEN ACKSTAT ACKDT ACKEN RCEN PEN RSEN SEN 0000 0000 83, 151
92h PR2 Timer2 Period Register 1111 1111 62, 151
93h SSPADD Synchronous Serial Port (I2C mode) Address Register 0000 0000 79, 151
94h SSPSTAT SMP CKE D/A PSR/WUA BF 0000 0000 79, 151
95h Unimplemented — —
96h Unimplemented — —
97h Unimplemented — —
98h TXSTA CSRC TX9 TXEN SYNC BRGH TRMT TX9D 0000 -010 111, 151
99h SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register 0000 0000 113, 151
9Ah Unimplemented — —
9Bh Unimplemented — —
9Ch CMCON C2OUT C1OUT C2INV C1INV CIS CM2 CM1 CM0 0000 0111 135, 151
9Dh CVRCON CVREN CVROE CVRR CVR3 CVR2 CVR1 CVR0 000- 0000 141, 151
9Eh ADRESL A/D Result Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx 133, 151
9Fh ADCON1 ADFM ADCS2 PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 00-- 0000 128, 151
TABLE 2-1: SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on:
POR, BOR Details
on page:
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8>, whose
contents are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter.
2: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on PIC16F873A/876A devices; always maintain these bits clear.
3: These registers can be addressed from any bank.
4: PORTD, PORTE, TRISD and TRISE are not implemented on PIC16F873A/876A devices, read as ‘0’.
5: Bit 4 of EEADRH implemented only on the PIC16F876A/877A devices.
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 21
PIC16F87XA
Bank 2
100h(3) INDF Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) 0000 0000 31, 150
101h TMR0 Timer0 Module Register xxxx xxxx 55, 150
102h(3) PCL Program Counter’s (PC) Least Significant Byte 0000 0000 30, 150
103h(3) STATUS IRP RP1 RP0 TO PD ZDCC0001 1xxx 22, 150
104h(3) FSR Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer xxxx xxxx 31, 150
105h Unimplemented — —
106h PORTB PORTB Data Latch when written: PORTB pins when read xxxx xxxx 45, 150
107h Unimplemented — —
108h Unimplemented — —
109h Unimplemented — —
10Ah(1,3) PCLATH — — Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter ---0 0000 30, 150
10Bh(3) INTCON GIE PEIE TMR0IE INTE RBIE TMR0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 24, 150
10Ch EEDATA EEPROM Data Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx 39, 151
10Dh EEADR EEPROM Address Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx 39, 151
10Eh EEDATH EEPROM Data Register High Byte --xx xxxx 39, 151
10Fh EEADRH — —(5) EEPROM Address Register High Byte ---- xxxx 39, 151
Bank 3
180h(3) INDF Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) 0000 0000 31, 150
181h OPTION_REG RBPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0 1111 1111 23, 150
182h(3) PCL Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte 0000 0000 30, 150
183h(3) STATUS IRP RP1 RP0 TO PD ZDCC0001 1xxx 22, 150
184h(3) FSR Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer xxxx xxxx 31, 150
185h Unimplemented — —
186h TRISB PORTB Data Direction Register 1111 1111 45, 150
187h Unimplemented — —
188h Unimplemented — —
189h Unimplemented — —
18Ah(1,3) PCLATH — — Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter ---0 0000 30, 150
18Bh(3) INTCON GIE PEIE TMR0IE INTE RBIE TMR0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 24, 150
18Ch EECON1 EEPGD — — WRERR WREN WR RD x--- x000 34, 151
18Dh EECON2 EEPROM Control Register 2 (not a physical register) ---- ---- 39, 151
18Eh Reserved; maintain clear 0000 0000
18Fh Reserved; maintain clear 0000 0000
TABLE 2-1: SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on:
POR, BOR Details
on page:
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8>, whose
contents are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter.
2: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on PIC16F873A/876A devices; always maintain these bits clear.
3: These registers can be addressed from any bank.
4: PORTD, PORTE, TRISD and TRISE are not implemented on PIC16F873A/876A devices, read as ‘0’.
5: Bit 4 of EEADRH implemented only on the PIC16F876A/877A devices.
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 22 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
2.2.2.1 Status Register
The Status register contains the arithmetic status of the
ALU, the Reset status and the bank select bits for data
memory.
The Status register can be the destination for any
instruction, as with any other register. If the Status reg-
ister is the destination for an instruction that affects the
Z, DC or C bits, then the write to these three bits is dis-
abled. These bits are set or cleared according to the
device logic. Furthermore, the TO and PD bits are not
writable, therefore, the result of an instruction with the
Status register as destination may be different than
intended.
For example, CLRF STATUS, will clear the upper three
bits and set the Z bit. This leaves the Status register as
000u u1uu (where u = unchanged).
It is recommended, therefore, that only BCF, BSF,
SWAPF and MOVWF instructions are used to alter the
Status register because these instructions do not affect
the Z, C or DC bits from the Status register. For other
instructions not affecting any status bits, see
Section 15.0 “Instruction Set Summary”.
REGISTER 2-1: STATUS REGISTER (ADDRESS 03h, 83h, 103h, 183h)
Note: The C and DC bits operate as a borrow
and digit borrow bit, respectively, in sub-
traction. See the SUBLW and SUBWF
instructions for examples.
R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R-1 R-1 R/W-x R/W-x R/W-x
IRP RP1 RP0 TO PD ZDCC
bit 7 bit 0
bit 7 IRP: Register Bank Select bit (used for indirect addressing)
1 = Bank 2, 3 (100h-1FFh)
0 = Bank 0, 1 (00h-FFh)
bit 6-5 RP1:RP0: Register Bank Select bits (used for direct addressing)
11 = Bank 3 (180h-1FFh)
10 = Bank 2 (100h-17Fh)
01 = Bank 1 (80h-FFh)
00 = Bank 0 (00h-7Fh)
Each bank is 128 bytes.
bit 4 TO: Time-out bit
1 = After power-up, CLRWDT instruction or SLEEP instruction
0 = A WDT time-out occurred
bit 3 PD: Power-down bit
1 = After power-up or by the CLRWDT instruction
0 = By execution of the SLEEP instruction
bit 2 Z: Zero bit
1 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero
0 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is not zero
bit 1 DC: Digit carry/borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW,SUBLW,SUBWF instructions)
(for borrow, the polarity is reversed)
1 = A carry-out from the 4th low order bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the 4th low order bit of the result
bit 0 C: Carry/borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW,SUBLW,SUBWF instructions)
1 = A carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred
Note: For borrow, the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the two’s
complement of the second operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is
loaded with either the high, or low order bit of the source register.
Legend:
R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 23
PIC16F87XA
2.2.2.2 OPTION_REG Register
The OPTION_REG Register is a readable and writable
register, which contains various control bits to configure
the TMR0 prescaler/WDT postscaler (single assign-
able register known also as the prescaler), the external
INT interrupt, TMR0 and the weak pull-ups on PORTB.
REGISTER 2-2: OPTION_REG REGISTER (ADDRESS 81h, 181h)
Note: To achieve a 1:1 prescaler assignment for
the TMR0 register, assign the prescaler to
the Watchdog Timer.
R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1
RBPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0
bit 7 bit 0
bit 7 RBPU: PORTB Pull-up Enable bit
1 = PORTB pull-ups are disabled
0 = PORTB pull-ups are enabled by individual port latch values
bit 6 INTEDG: Interrupt Edge Select bit
1 = Interrupt on rising edge of RB0/INT pin
0 = Interrupt on falling edge of RB0/INT pin
bit 5 T0CS: TMR0 Clock Source Select bit
1 = Transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (CLKO)
bit 4 T0SE: TMR0 Source Edge Select bit
1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
bit 3 PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit
1 = Prescaler is assigned to the WDT
0 = Prescaler is assigned to the Timer0 module
bit 2-0 PS2:PS0: Prescaler Rate Select bits
Legend:
R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown
Note: When using Low-Voltage ICSP Programming (LVP) and the pull-ups on PORTB are
enabled, bit 3 in the TRISB register must be cleared to disable the pull-up on RB3
and ensure the proper operation of the device
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
1 : 2
1 : 4
1 : 8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
1 : 256
1 : 1
1 : 2
1 : 4
1 : 8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
Bit Value TMR0 Rate WDT Rate
j
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 24 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
2.2.2.3 INTCON Register
The INTCON register is a readable and writable regis-
ter, which contains various enable and flag bits for the
TMR0 register overflow, RB port change and external
RB0/INT pin interrupts.
REGISTER 2-3: INTCON REGISTER (ADDRESS 0Bh, 8Bh, 10Bh, 18Bh)
Note: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs regardless of the state of its
corresponding enable bit or the global
enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User software
should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag
bits are clear prior to enabling an interrupt.
R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-x
GIE PEIETMR0IEINTE RBIETMR0IFINTF RBIF
bit 7 bit 0
bit 7 GIE: Global Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all unmasked interrupts
0 = Disables all interrupts
bit 6 PEIE: Peripheral Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all unmasked peripheral interrupts
0 = Disables all peripheral interrupts
bit 5 TMR0IE: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR0 interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR0 interrupt
bit 4 INTE: RB0/INT External Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the RB0/INT external interrupt
0 = Disables the RB0/INT external interrupt
bit 3 RBIE: RB Port Change Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the RB port change interrupt
0 = Disables the RB port change interrupt
bit 2 TMR0IF: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR0 register has overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = TMR0 register did not overflow
bit 1 INTF: RB0/INT External Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The RB0/INT external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = The RB0/INT external interrupt did not occur
bit 0 RBIF: RB Port Change Interrupt Flag bit
1 = At least one of the RB7:RB4 pins changed state; a mismatch condition will continue to set
the bit. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow the bit to be cleared
(must be cleared in software).
0 = None of the RB7:RB4 pins have changed state
Legend:
R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 25
PIC16F87XA
2.2.2.4 PIE1 Register
The PIE1 register contains the individual enable bits for
the peripheral interrupts.
REGISTER 2-4: PIE1 REGISTER (ADDRESS 8Ch)
Note: Bit PEIE (INTCON<6>) must be set to
enable any peripheral interrupt.
R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0
PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE
bit 7 bit 0
bit 7 PSPIE: Parallel Slave Port Read/Write Interrupt Enable bit(1)
1 = Enables the PSP read/write interrupt
0 = Disables the PSP read/write interrupt
Note 1: PSPIE is reserved on PIC16F873A/876A devices; always maintain this bit clear.
bit 6 ADIE: A/D Converter Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the A/D converter interrupt
0 = Disables the A/D converter interrupt
bit 5 RCIE: USART Receive Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the USART receive interrupt
0 = Disables the USART receive interrupt
bit 4 TXIE: USART Transmit Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the USART transmit interrupt
0 = Disables the USART transmit interrupt
bit 3 SSPIE: Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the SSP interrupt
0 = Disables the SSP interrupt
bit 2 CCP1IE: CCP1 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the CCP1 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP1 interrupt
bit 1 TMR2IE: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt
bit 0 TMR1IE: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR1 overflow interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR1 overflow interrupt
Legend:
R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown
Caglure mode. Cumgare mode. FWM mode.
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 26 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
2.2.2.5 PIR1 Register
The PIR1 register contains the individual flag bits for
the peripheral interrupts.
REGISTER 2-5: PIR1 REGISTER (ADDRESS 0Ch)
Note: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs regardless of the state of its
corresponding enable bit or the global
enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User software
should ensure the appropriate interrupt bits
are clear prior to enabling an interrupt.
R/W-0 R/W-0 R-0 R-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0
PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF
bit 7 bit 0
bit 7 PSPIF: Parallel Slave Port Read/Write Interrupt Flag bit(1)
1 = A read or a write operation has taken place (must be cleared in software)
0 = No read or write has occurred
Note 1: PSPIF is reserved on PIC16F873A/876A devices; always maintain this bit clear.
bit 6 ADIF: A/D Converter Interrupt Flag bit
1 = An A/D conversion completed
0 = The A/D conversion is not complete
bit 5 RCIF: USART Receive Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The USART receive buffer is full
0 = The USART receive buffer is empty
bit 4 TXIF: USART Transmit Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The USART transmit buffer is empty
0 = The USART transmit buffer is full
bit 3 SSPIF: Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The SSP interrupt condition has occurred and must be cleared in software before returning
from the Interrupt Service Routine. The conditions that will set this bit are:
SPI – A transmission/reception has taken place.
• I
2C Slave – A transmission/reception has taken place.
•I
2C Master
- A transmission/reception has taken place.
- The initiated Start condition was completed by the SSP module.
- The initiated Stop condition was completed by the SSP module.
- The initiated Restart condition was completed by the SSP module.
- The initiated Acknowledge condition was completed by the SSP module.
- A Start condition occurred while the SSP module was Idle (multi-master system).
- A Stop condition occurred while the SSP module was Idle (multi-master system).
0 = No SSP interrupt condition has occurred
bit 2 CCP1IF: CCP1 Interrupt Flag bit
Capture mode:
1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred
Compare mode:
1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred
PWM mode:
Unused in this mode.
bit 1 TMR2IF: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR2 to PR2 match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR2 to PR2 match occurred
bit 0 TMR1IF: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR1 register overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = TMR1 register did not overflow
Legend:
R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 27
PIC16F87XA
2.2.2.6 PIE2 Register
The PIE2 register contains the individual enable bits for
the CCP2 peripheral interrupt, the SSP bus collision
interrupt, EEPROM write operation interrupt and the
comparator interrupt.
REGISTER 2-6: PIE2 REGISTER (ADDRESS 8Dh)
Note: Bit PEIE (INTCON<6>) must be set to
enable any peripheral interrupt.
U-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-0
—CMIE EEIE BCLIE — CCP2IE
bit 7 bit 0
bit 7 Unimplemented: Read as0
bit 6 CMIE: Comparator Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the comparator interrupt
0 = Disable the comparator interrupt
bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as0
bit 4 EEIE: EEPROM Write Operation Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enable EEPROM write interrupt
0 = Disable EEPROM write interrupt
bit 3 BCLIE: Bus Collision Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enable bus collision interrupt
0 = Disable bus collision interrupt
bit 2-1 Unimplemented: Read as0
bit 0 CCP2IE: CCP2 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the CCP2 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP2 interrupt
Legend:
R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown
Caglure mode. Cumgare mode. FWM mode.
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 28 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
2.2.2.7 PIR2 Register
The PIR2 register contains the flag bits for the CCP2
interrupt, the SSP bus collision interrupt, EEPROM
write operation interrupt and the comparator interrupt.
REGISTER 2-7: PIR2 REGISTER (ADDRESS 0Dh)
Note: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the global
enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User
software should ensure the appropriate
interrupt flag bits are clear prior to
enabling an interrupt.
U-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-0
—CMIF EEIF BCLIF — CCP2IF
bit 7 bit 0
bit 7 Unimplemented: Read as0
bit 6 CMIF: Comparator Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The comparator input has changed (must be cleared in software)
0 = The comparator input has not changed
bit 5 Unimplemented: Read as0
bit 4 EEIF: EEPROM Write Operation Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The write operation completed (must be cleared in software)
0 = The write operation is not complete or has not been started
bit 3 BCLIF: Bus Collision Interrupt Flag bit
1 = A bus collision has occurred in the SSP when configured for I2C Master mode
0 = No bus collision has occurred
bit 2-1 Unimplemented: Read as0
bit 0 CCP2IF: CCP2 Interrupt Flag bit
Capture mode:
1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred
Compare mode:
1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred
PWM mode:
Unused.
Legend:
R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 29
PIC16F87XA
2.2.2.8 PCON Register
The Power Control (PCON) register contains flag bits
to allow differentiation between a Power-on Reset
(POR), a Brown-out Reset (BOR), a Watchdog Reset
(WDT) and an external MCLR Reset.
REGISTER 2-8: PCON REGISTER (ADDRESS 8Eh)
Note: BOR is unknown on Power-on Reset. It
must be set by the user and checked on
subsequent Resets to see if BOR is clear,
indicating a brown-out has occurred. The
BOR status bit is a “don’t care” and is not
predictable if the brown-out circuit is dis-
abled (by clearing the BODEN bit in the
configuration word).
U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-1
— — — — — —PORBOR
bit 7 bit 0
bit 7-2 Unimplemented: Read as0
bit 1 POR: Power-on Reset Status bit
1 = No Power-on Reset occurred
0 = A Power-on Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Power-on Reset occurs)
bit 0 BOR: Brown-out Reset Status bit
1 = No Brown-out Reset occurred
0 = A Brown-out Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Brown-out Reset occurs)
Legend:
R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 30 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
2.3 PCL and PCLATH
The Program Counter (PC) is 13 bits wide. The low
byte comes from the PCL register which is a readable
and writable register. The upper bits (PC<12:8>) are
not readable, but are indirectly writable through the
PCLATH register. On any Reset, the upper bits of the
PC will be cleared. Figure 2-5 shows the two situations
for the loading of the PC. The upper example in the
figure shows how the PC is loaded on a write to PCL
(PCLATH<4:0> PCH). The lower example in the
figure shows how the PC is loaded during a CALL or
GOTO instruction (PCLATH<4:3> PCH).
FIGURE 2-5: LOADING OF PC IN
DIFFERENT SITUATIONS
2.3.1 COMPUTED GOTO
A computed GOTO is accomplished by adding an offset
to the program counter (ADDWF PCL). When doing a
table read using a computed GOTO method, care
should be exercised if the table location crosses a PCL
memory boundary (each 256-byte block). Refer to the
application note, AN556, “Implementing a Table Read”
(DS00556).
2.3.2 STACK
The PIC16F87XA family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit
wide hardware stack. The stack space is not part of
either program or data space and the stack pointer is not
readable or writable. The PC is PUSHed onto the stack
when a CALL instruction is executed, or an interrupt
causes a branch. The stack is POP’ed in the event of a
RETURN, RETLW or a RETFIE instruction execution.
PCLATH is not affected by a PUSH or POP operation.
The stack operates as a circular buffer. This means that
after the stack has been PUSHed eight times, the ninth
push overwrites the value that was stored from the first
push. The tenth push overwrites the second push (and
so on).
2.4 Program Memory Paging
All PIC16F87XA devices are capable of addressing a
continuous 8K word block of program memory. The
CALL and GOTO instructions provide only 11 bits of
address to allow branching within any 2K program
memory page. When doing a CALL or GOTO instruction,
the upper 2 bits of the address are provided by
PCLATH<4:3>. When doing a CALL or GOTO instruc-
tion, the user must ensure that the page select bits are
programmed so that the desired program memory
page is addressed. If a return from a CALL instruction
(or interrupt) is executed, the entire 13-bit PC is popped
off the stack. Therefore, manipulation of the
PCLATH<4:3> bits is not required for the RETURN
instructions (which POPs the address from the stack).
Example 2-1 shows the calling of a subroutine in
page 1 of the program memory. This example assumes
that PCLATH is saved and restored by the Interrupt
Service Routine (if interrupts are used).
EXAMPLE 2-1: CALL OF A SUBROUTINE
IN PAGE 1 FROM PAGE 0
PC
12 8 7 0
5PCLATH<4:0>
PCLATH
Instruction with
ALU
GOTO,CALL
Opcode <10:0>
8
PC
12 11 10 0
11
PCLATH<4:3>
PCH PCL
87
2
PCLATH
PCH PCL
PCL as
Destination
Note 1: There are no status bits to indicate stack
overflow or stack underflow conditions.
2: There are no instructions/mnemonics
called PUSH or POP. These are actions
that occur from the execution of the CALL,
RETURN, RETLW and RETFIE instructions
or the vectoring to an interrupt address.
Note: The contents of the PCLATH register are
unchanged after a RETURN or RETFIE
instruction is executed. The user must
rewrite the contents of the PCLATH regis-
ter for any subsequent subroutine calls or
GOTO instructions.
ORG 0x500
BCF PCLATH,4
BSF PCLATH,3 ;Select page 1
;(800h-FFFh)
CALL SUB1_P1 ;Call subroutine in
: ;page 1 (800h-FFFh)
:
ORG 0x900 ;page 1 (800h-FFFh)
SUB1_P1
: ;called subroutine
;page 1 (800h-FFFh)
:
RETURN ;return to
;Call subroutine
;in page 0
;(000h-7FFh)
Um
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 31
PIC16F87XA
2.5 Indirect Addressing, INDF and
FSR Registers
The INDF register is not a physical register. Addressing
the INDF register will cause indirect addressing.
Indirect addressing is possible by using the INDF reg-
ister. Any instruction using the INDF register actually
accesses the register pointed to by the File Select Reg-
ister, FSR. Reading the INDF register itself, indirectly
(FSR = 0) will read 00h. Writing to the INDF register
indirectly results in a no operation (although status bits
may be affected). An effective 9-bit address is obtained
by concatenating the 8-bit FSR register and the IRP bit
(Status<7>) as shown in Figure 2-6.
A simple program to clear RAM locations 20h-2Fh
using indirect addressing is shown in Example 2-2.
EXAMPLE 2-2: INDIRECT ADDRESSING
FIGURE 2-6: DIRECT/INDIRECT ADDRESSING
MOVLW 0x20 ;initialize pointer
MOVWF FSR ;to RAM
NEXT CLRF INDF ;clear INDF register
INCF FSR,F ;inc pointer
BTFSS FSR,4 ;all done?
GOTO NEXT ;no clear next
CONTINUE
: ;yes continue
Note 1: For register file map detail, see Figure 2-3.
Data
Memory(1)
Indirect AddressingDirect Addressing
Bank Select Location Select
RP1:RP0 6 0
From Opcode IRP FSR Register
70
Bank Select Location Select
00 01 10 11
Bank 0 Bank 1 Bank 2 Bank 3
FFh
80h
7Fh
00h
17Fh
100h
1FFh
180h
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 32 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
NOTES:
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 33
PIC16F87XA
3.0 DATA EEPROM AND FLASH
PROGRAM MEMORY
The data EEPROM and Flash program memory is read-
able and writable during normal operation (over the full
VDD range). This memory is not directly mapped in the
register file space. Instead, it is indirectly addressed
through the Special Function Registers. There are six
SFRs used to read and write this memory:
• EECON1
• EECON2
• EEDATA
• EEDATH
• EEADR
• EEADRH
When interfacing to the data memory block, EEDATA
holds the 8-bit data for read/write and EEADR holds the
address of the EEPROM location being accessed.
These devices have 128 or 256 bytes of data EEPROM
(depending on the device), with an address range from
00h to FFh. On devices with 128 bytes, addresses from
80h to FFh are unimplemented and will wraparound to
the beginning of data EEPROM memory. When writing
to unimplemented locations, the on-chip charge pump
will be turned off.
When interfacing the program memory block, the
EEDATA and EEDATH registers form a two-byte word
that holds the 14-bit data for read/write and the EEADR
and EEADRH registers form a two-byte word that holds
the 13-bit address of the program memory location
being accessed. These devices have 4 or 8K words of
program Flash, with an address range from 0000h to
0FFFh for the PIC16F873A/874A and 0000h to 1FFFh
for the PIC16F876A/877A. Addresses above the range
of the respective device will wraparound to the
beginning of program memory.
The EEPROM data memory allows single-byte read and
write. The Flash program memory allows single-word
reads and four-word block writes. Program memory
write operations automatically perform an erase-before-
write on blocks of four words. A byte write in data
EEPROM memory automatically erases the location
and writes the new data (erase-before-write).
The write time is controlled by an on-chip timer. The
write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip
charge pump, rated to operate over the voltage range
of the device for byte or word operations.
When the device is code-protected, the CPU may
continue to read and write the data EEPROM memory.
Depending on the settings of the write-protect bits, the
device may or may not be able to write certain blocks
of the program memory; however, reads of the program
memory are allowed. When code-protected, the device
programmer can no longer access data or program
memory; this does NOT inhibit internal reads or writes.
3.1 EEADR and EEADRH
The EEADRH:EEADR register pair can address up to
a maximum of 256 bytes of data EEPROM or up to a
maximum of 8K words of program EEPROM. When
selecting a data address value, only the LSByte of the
address is written to the EEADR register. When select-
ing a program address value, the MSByte of the
address is written to the EEADRH register and the
LSByte is written to the EEADR register.
If the device contains less memory than the full address
reach of the address register pair, the Most Significant
bits of the registers are not implemented. For example,
if the device has 128 bytes of data EEPROM, the Most
Significant bit of EEADR is not implemented on access
to data EEPROM.
3.2 EECON1 and EECON2 Registers
EECON1 is the control register for memory accesses.
Control bit, EEPGD, determines if the access will be a
program or data memory access. When clear, as it is
when reset, any subsequent operations will operate on
the data memory. When set, any subsequent
operations will operate on the program memory.
Control bits, RD and WR, initiate read and write or
erase, respectively. These bits cannot be cleared, only
set, in software. They are cleared in hardware at com-
pletion of the read or write operation. The inability to
clear the WR bit in software prevents the accidental,
premature termination of a write operation.
The WREN bit, when set, will allow a write or erase
operation. On power-up, the WREN bit is clear. The
WRERR bit is set when a write (or erase) operation is
interrupted by a MCLR or a WDT Time-out Reset dur-
ing normal operation. In these situations, following
Reset, the user can check the WRERR bit and rewrite
the location. The data and address will be unchanged
in the EEDATA and EEADR registers.
Interrupt flag bit, EEIF in the PIR2 register, is set when
the write is complete. It must be cleared in software.
EECON2 is not a physical register. Reading EECON2
will read all ‘0’s. The EECON2 register is used
exclusively in the EEPROM write sequence.
Note: The self-programming mechanism for Flash
program memory has been changed. On
previous PIC16F87X devices, Flash pro-
gramming was done in single-word erase/
write cycles. The newer PIC18F87XA
devices use a four-word erase/write
cycle. See Section 3.6 “Writing to Flash
Program Memory” for more information.
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 34 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
REGISTER 3-1: EECON1 REGISTER (ADDRESS 18Ch)
R/W-x U-0 U-0 U-0 R/W-x R/W-0 R/S-0 R/S-0
EEPGD — — WRERR WREN WR RD
bit 7 bit 0
bit 7 EEPGD: Program/Data EEPROM Select bit
1 = Accesses program memory
0 = Accesses data memory
Reads ‘0’ after a POR; this bit cannot be changed while a write operation is in progress.
bit 6-4 Unimplemented: Read as0
bit 3 WRERR: EEPROM Error Flag bit
1 = A write operation is prematurely terminated (any MCLR or any WDT Reset during normal
operation)
0 = The write operation completed
bit 2 WREN: EEPROM Write Enable bit
1 = Allows write cycles
0 = Inhibits write to the EEPROM
bit 1 WR: Write Control bit
1 = Initiates a write cycle. The bit is cleared by hardware once write is complete. The WR bit
can only be set (not cleared) in software.
0 = Write cycle to the EEPROM is complete
bit 0 RD: Read Control bit
1 = Initiates an EEPROM read; RD is cleared in hardware. The RD bit can only be set (not
cleared) in software.
0 = Does not initiate an EEPROM read
Legend:
R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 35
PIC16F87XA
3.3 Reading Data EEPROM Memory
To read a data memory location, the user must write the
address to the EEADR register, clear the EEPGD con-
trol bit (EECON1<7>) and then set control bit RD
(EECON1<0>). The data is available in the very next
cycle in the EEDATA register; therefore, it can be read
in the next instruction (see Example 3-1). EEDATA will
hold this value until another read or until it is written to
by the user (during a write operation).
The steps to reading the EEPROM data memory are:
1. Write the address to EEADR. Make sure that the
address is not larger than the memory size of
the device.
2. Clear the EEPGD bit to point to EEPROM data
memory.
3. Set the RD bit to start the read operation.
4. Read the data from the EEDATA register.
EXAMPLE 3-1: DATA EEPROM READ
3.4 Writing to Data EEPROM Memory
To write an EEPROM data location, the user must first
write the address to the EEADR register and the data to
the EEDATA register. Then the user must follow a
specific write sequence to initiate the write for each byte.
The write will not initiate if the write sequence is not
exactly followed (write 55h to EECON2, write AAh to
EECON2, then set WR bit) for each byte. We strongly
recommend that interrupts be disabled during this
code segment (see Example 3-2).
Additionally, the WREN bit in EECON1 must be set to
enable write. This mechanism prevents accidental
writes to data EEPROM due to errant (unexpected)
code execution (i.e., lost programs). The user should
keep the WREN bit clear at all times, except when
updating EEPROM. The WREN bit is not cleared
by hardware
After a write sequence has been initiated, clearing the
WREN bit will not affect this write cycle. The WR bit will
be inhibited from being set unless the WREN bit is set.
At the completion of the write cycle, the WR bit is
cleared in hardware and the EE Write Complete
Interrupt Flag bit (EEIF) is set. The user can either
enable this interrupt or poll this bit. EEIF must be
cleared by software.
The steps to write to EEPROM data memory are:
1. If step 10 is not implemented, check the WR bit
to see if a write is in progress.
2. Write the address to EEADR. Make sure that the
address is not larger than the memory size of
the device.
3. Write the 8-bit data value to be programmed in
the EEDATA register.
4. Clear the EEPGD bit to point to EEPROM data
memory.
5. Set the WREN bit to enable program operations.
6. Disable interrupts (if enabled).
7. Execute the special five instruction sequence:
Write 55h to EECON2 in two steps (first
to W, then to EECON2)
Write AAh to EECON2 in two steps (first
to W, then to EECON2)
Set the WR bit
8. Enable interrupts (if using interrupts).
9. Clear the WREN bit to disable program
operations.
10. At the completion of the write cycle, the WR bit
is cleared and the EEIF interrupt flag bit is set.
(EEIF must be cleared by firmware.) If step 1 is
not implemented, then firmware should check
for EEIF to be set, or WR to clear, to indicate the
end of the program cycle.
EXAMPLE 3-2: DATA EEPROM WRITE
BSF STATUS,RP1 ;
BCF STATUS,RP0 ; Bank 2
MOVF DATA_EE_ADDR,W ; Data Memory
MOVWF EEADR ; Address to read
BSF STATUS,RP0 ; Bank 3
BCF EECON1,EEPGD ; Point to Data
; memory
BSF EECON1,RD ; EE Read
BCF STATUS,RP0 ; Bank 2
MOVF EEDATA,W ; W = EEDATA
BSF STATUS,RP1 ;
BSF STATUS,RP0
BTFSC EECON1,WR ;Wait for write
GOTO $-1 ;to complete
BCF STATUS, RP0 ;Bank 2
MOVF DATA_EE_ADDR,W ;Data Memory
MOVWF EEADR ;Address to write
MOVF DATA_EE_DATA,W ;Data Memory Value
MOVWF EEDATA ;to write
BSF STATUS,RP0 ;Bank 3
BCF EECON1,EEPGD ;Point to DATA
;memory
BSF EECON1,WREN ;Enable writes
BCF INTCON,GIE ;Disable INTs.
MOVLW 55h ;
MOVWF EECON2 ;Write 55h
MOVLW AAh ;
MOVWF EECON2 ;Write AAh
BSF EECON1,WR ;Set WR bit to
;begin write
BSF INTCON,GIE ;Enable INTs.
BCF EECON1,WREN ;Disable writes
Required
Sequence
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 36 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
3.5 Reading Flash Program Memory
To read a program memory location, the user must write
two bytes of the address to the EEADR and EEADRH
registers, set the EEPGD control bit (EECON1<7>) and
then set control bit RD (EECON1<0>). Once the read
control bit is set, the program memory Flash controller
will use the next two instruction cycles to read the data.
This causes these two instructions immediately follow-
ing the BSF EECON1,RD” instruction to be ignored.
The data is available in the very next cycle in the
EEDATA and EEDATH registers; therefore, it can be
read as two bytes in the following instructions. EEDATA
and EEDATH registers will hold this value until another
read or until it is written to by the user (during a write
operation).
EXAMPLE 3-3: FLASH PROGRAM READ
BSF STATUS, RP1 ;
BCF STATUS, RP0 ; Bank 2
MOVLW MS_PROG_EE_ADDR ;
MOVWF EEADRH ; MS Byte of Program Address to read
MOVLW LS_PROG_EE_ADDR ;
MOVWF EEADR ; LS Byte of Program Address to read
BSF STATUS, RP0 ; Bank 3
BSF EECON1, EEPGD ; Point to PROGRAM memory
BSF EECON1, RD ; EE Read
;
NOP
NOP ; Any instructions here are ignored as program
; memory is read in second cycle after BSF EECON1,RD
;
BCF STATUS, RP0 ; Bank 2
MOVF EEDATA, W ; W = LS Byte of Program EEDATA
MOVWF DATAL ;
MOVF EEDATH, W ; W = MS Byte of Program EEDATA
MOVWF DATAH ;
Required
Sequence
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 37
PIC16F87XA
3.6 Writing to Flash Program Memory
Flash program memory may only be written to if the
destination address is in a segment of memory that is
not write-protected, as defined in bits WRT1:WRT0 of
the device configuration word (Register 14-1). Flash
program memory must be written in four-word blocks. A
block consists of four words with sequential addresses,
with a lower boundary defined by an address, where
EEADR<1:0> = 00. At the same time, all block writes to
program memory are done as erase and write opera-
tions. The write operation is edge-aligned and cannot
occur across boundaries.
To write program data, it must first be loaded into the
buffer registers (see Figure 3-1). This is accomplished
by first writing the destination address to EEADR and
EEADRH and then writing the data to EEDATA and
EEDATH. After the address and data have been set up,
then the following sequence of events must be
executed:
1. Set the EEPGD control bit (EECON1<7>).
2. Write 55h, then AAh, to EECON2 (Flash
programming sequence).
3. Set the WR control bit (EECON1<1>).
All four buffer register locations MUST be written to with
correct data. If only one, two or three words are being
written to in the block of four words, then a read from
the program memory location(s) not being written to
must be performed. This takes the data from the pro-
gram location(s) not being written and loads it into the
EEDATA and EEDATH registers. Then the sequence of
events to transfer data to the buffer registers must be
executed.
To transfer data from the buffer registers to the program
memory, the EEADR and EEADRH must point to the last
location in the four-word block (EEADR<1:0> = 11).
Then the following sequence of events must be
executed:
1. Set the EEPGD control bit (EECON1<7>).
2. Write 55h, then AAh, to EECON2 (Flash
programming sequence).
3. Set control bit WR (EECON1<1>) to begin the
write operation.
The user must follow the same specific sequence to ini-
tiate the write for each word in the program block, writ-
ing each program word in sequence (00,01,10,11).
When the write is performed on the last word
(EEADR<1:0> = 11), the block of four words are
automatically erased and the contents of the buffer
registers are written into the program memory.
After theBSF EECON1,WR” instruction, the processor
requires two cycles to set up the erase/write operation.
The user must place two NOP instructions after the WR
bit is set. Since data is being written to buffer registers,
the writing of the first three words of the block appears
to occur immediately. The processor will halt internal
operations for the typical 4 ms, only during the cycle in
which the erase takes place (i.e., the last word of the
four-word block). This is not Sleep mode as the clocks
and peripherals will continue to run. After the write
cycle, the processor will resume operation with the third
instruction after the EECON1 write instruction. If the
sequence is performed to any other location, the action
is ignored.
FIGURE 3-1: BLOCK WRITES TO FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY
14 14 14 14
Program Memory
Buffer Register
EEADR<1:0> = 00
Buffer Register
EEADR<1:0> = 01
Buffer Register
EEADR<1:0> = 10
Buffer Register
EEADR<1:0> = 11
EEDATAEEDATH
75 07 0
6 8
First word of block
to be written
Four words of
to Flash
automatically
after this word
is written
are transferred
Flash are erased,
then all buffers
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 38 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
An example of the complete four-word write sequence
is shown in Example 3-4. The initial address is loaded
into the EEADRH:EEADR register pair; the four words
of data are loaded using indirect addressing.
EXAMPLE 3-4: WRITING TO FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY
; This write routine assumes the following:
;
; 1. A valid starting address (the least significant bits = ‘00’)is loaded in ADDRH:ADDRL
; 2. The 8 bytes of data are loaded, starting at the address in DATADDR
; 3. ADDRH, ADDRL and DATADDR are all located in shared data memory 0x70 - 0x7f
;
BSF STATUS,RP1 ;
BCF STATUS,RP0 ; Bank 2
MOVF ADDRH,W ; Load initial address
MOVWF EEADRH ;
MOVF ADDRL,W ;
MOVWF EEADR ;
MOVF DATAADDR,W ; Load initial data address
MOVWF FSR ;
LOOP MOVF INDF,W ; Load first data byte into lower
MOVWF EEDATA ;
INCF FSR,F ; Next byte
MOVF INDF,W ; Load second data byte into upper
MOVWF EEDATH ;
INCF FSR,F ;
BSF STATUS,RP0 ; Bank 3
BSF EECON1,EEPGD ; Point to program memory
BSF EECON1,WREN ; Enable writes
BCF INTCON,GIE ; Disable interrupts (if using)
MOVLW 55h ; Start of required write sequence:
MOVWF EECON2 ; Write 55h
MOVLW AAh ;
MOVWF EECON2 ; Write AAh
BSF EECON1,WR ; Set WR bit to begin write
NOP ; Any instructions here are ignored as processor
; halts to begin write sequence
NOP ; processor will stop here and wait for write complete
; after write processor continues with 3rd instruction
BCF EECON1,WREN ; Disable writes
BSF INTCON,GIE ; Enable interrupts (if using)
BCF STATUS,RP0 ; Bank 2
INCF EEADR,F ; Increment address
MOVF EEADR,W ; Check if lower two bits of address are ‘00’
ANDLW 0x03 ; Indicates when four words have been programmed
XORLW 0x03 ;
BTFSC STATUS,Z ; Exit if more than four words,
GOTO LOOP ; Continue if less than four words
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 39
PIC16F87XA
3.7 Protection Against Spurious Write
There are conditions when the device should not write
to the data EEPROM or Flash program memory. To
protect against spurious writes, various mechanisms
have been built-in. On power-up, WREN is cleared.
Also, the Power-up Timer (72 ms duration) prevents an
EEPROM write.
The write initiate sequence and the WREN bit together
help prevent an accidental write during brown-out,
power glitch or software malfunction.
3.8 Operation During Code-Protect
When the data EEPROM is code-protected, the micro-
controller can read and write to the EEPROM normally.
However, all external access to the EEPROM is
disabled. External write access to the program memory
is also disabled.
When program memory is code-protected, the microcon-
troller can read and write to program memory normally,
as well as execute instructions. Writes by the device may
be selectively inhibited to regions of the memory depend-
ing on the setting of bits WR1:WR0 of the configuration
word (see Section 14.1 “Configuration Bits” for addi-
tional information). External access to the memory is also
disabled.
TABLE 3-1: REGISTERS/BITS ASSOCIATED WITH DATA EEPROM AND
FLASH PROGRAM MEMORIES
Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on
Power-on
Reset
Value on
all other
Resets
10Ch EEDATA EEPROM/Flash Data Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
10Dh EEADR EEPROM/Flash Address Register Low Byte xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
10Eh EEDATH EEPROM/Flash Data Register High Byte xxxx xxxx ---0 q000
10Fh EEADRH EEPROM/Flash Address Register High Byte xxxx xxxx ---- ----
18Ch EECON1 EEPGD —— WRERR WREN WR RD x--- x000 ---0 q000
18Dh EECON2 EEPROM Control Register 2 (not a physical register) ---- ---- ---- ----
0Dh PIR2 CMIF —EEIFBCLIF CCP2IF -0-0 0--0 -0-0 0--0
8Dh PIE2 CMIE —EEIEBCLIE CCP2IE -0-0 0--0 -0-0 0--0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, q = value depends upon condition.
Shaded cells are not used by data EEPROM or Flash program memory.
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 40 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
NOTES:
FT R‘V fi
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 41
PIC16F87XA
4.0 I/O PORTS
Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an
alternate function for the peripheral features on the
device. In general, when a peripheral is enabled, that
pin may not be used as a general purpose I/O pin.
Additional information on I/O ports may be found in the
PIC® Mid-Range Reference Manual (DS33023).
4.1 PORTA and the TRISA Register
PORTA is a 6-bit wide, bidirectional port. The corre-
sponding data direction register is TRISA. Setting a
TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin
an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a
High-Impedance mode). Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will
make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i.e., put
the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).
Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the
pins, whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. All
write operations are read-modify-write operations.
Therefore, a write to a port implies that the port pins are
read, the value is modified and then written to the port
data latch.
Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock
input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin. The RA4/T0CKI
pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain output.
All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full
CMOS output drivers.
Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs
and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters
and the comparators. The operation of each pin is
selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits
in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers.
The TRISA register controls the direction of the port
pins even when they are being used as analog inputs.
The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are
maintained set when using them as analog inputs.
EXAMPLE 4-1: INITIALIZING PORTA
FIGURE 4-1: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RA3:RA0 PINS
Note: On a Power-on Reset, these pins are con-
figured as analog inputs and read as ‘0’.
The comparators are in the off (digital)
state.
BCF STATUS, RP0 ;
BCF STATUS, RP1 ; Bank0
CLRF PORTA ; Initialize PORTA by
; clearing output
; data latches
BSF STATUS, RP0 ; Select Bank 1
MOVLW 0x06 ; Configure all pins
MOVWF ADCON1 ; as digital inputs
MOVLW 0xCF ; Value used to
; initialize data
; direction
MOVWF TRISA ; Set RA<3:0> as inputs
; RA<5:4> as outputs
; TRISA<7:6>are always
; read as '0'.
Data
Bus
QD
Q
CK
QD
Q
CK
QD
EN
P
N
WR
PORTA
WR
TRISA
Data Latch
TRIS Latch
RD
RD PORTA
VSS
VDD
I/O pin(1)
Note 1: I/O pins have protection diodes to VDD and VSS.
Analog
Input
Mode
TTL
Input
Buffer
To A/D Converter or Comparator
TRISA
% & Em? L ij 43
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 42 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 4-2: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RA4/T0CKI PIN
FIGURE 4-3: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RA5 PIN
Data Bus
WR PORTA
WR TRISA
RD PORTA
Data Latch
TRIS Latch
RD TRISA
Schmitt
Trigger
Input
Buffer
N
VSS
I/O pin(1)
TMR0 Clock Input
Q
D
QCK
QD
Q
CK
EN
QD
EN
C1OUT
Note 1: I/O pin has protection diodes to VSS only.
CMCON<2:0> = x01 or 011
1
0
Data Bus
WR PORTA
WR TRISA
RD PORTA
Data Latch
TRIS Latch
RD TRISA
TTL
Input
Buffer
I/O pin(1)
A/D Converter or SS Input
Q
D
QCK
QD
Q
CK
EN
QD
EN
C2OUT
CMCON<2:0> = 011 or 101
1
0P
N
VSS
VDD
Note 1: I/O pin has protection diodes to VDD and VSS.
Analog
IIP Mode
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 43
PIC16F87XA
TABLE 4-1: PORTA FUNCTIONS
TABLE 4-2: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTA
Name Bit# Buffer Function
RA0/AN0 bit 0 TTL Input/output or analog input.
RA1/AN1 bit 1 TTL Input/output or analog input.
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF bit 2 TTL Input/output or analog input or VREF- or CVREF.
RA3/AN3/VREF+ bit 3 TTL Input/output or analog input or VREF+.
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT bit 4 ST Input/output or external clock input for Timer0 or comparator output.
Output is open-drain type.
RA5/AN4/SS/C2OUT bit 5 TTL Input/output or analog input or slave select input for synchronous serial
port or comparator output.
Legend: TTL = TTL input, ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
05h PORTA RA5 RA4 RA3 RA2 RA1 RA0 --0x 0000 --0u 0000
85h TRISA PORTA Data Direction Register --11 1111 --11 1111
9Ch CMCON C2OUT C1OUT C2INV C1INV CIS CM2 CM1 CM0 0000 0111 0000 0111
9Dh CVRCON CVREN CVROE CVRR CVR3 CVR2 CVR1 CVR0 000- 0000 000- 0000
9Fh ADCON1 ADFM ADCS2 PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 00-- 0000 00-- 0000
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTA.
Note: When using the SSP module in SPI Slave mode and SS enabled, the A/D converter must be set to one of
the following modes, where PCFG3:PCFG0 = 0100, 0101, 011x, 1101, 1110, 1111.
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 44 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
4.2 PORTB and the TRISB Register
PORTB is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The corre-
sponding data direction register is TRISB. Setting a
TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB
pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in
a High-Impedance mode). Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0)
will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i.e.,
put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).
Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit
Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function:
RB3/PGM, RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD. The alternate
functions of these pins are described in Section 14.0
“Special Features of the CPU”.
Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. A
single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. This is per-
formed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>). The
weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the port
pin is configured as an output. The pull-ups are
disabled on a Power-on Reset.
FIGURE 4-4: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RB3:RB0 PINS
Four of the PORTB pins, RB7:RB4, have an interrupt-
on-change feature. Only pins configured as inputs can
cause this interrupt to occur (i.e., any RB7:RB4 pin
configured as an output is excluded from the interrupt-
on-change comparison). The input pins (of RB7:RB4)
are compared with the old value latched on the last
read of PORTB. The “mismatch” outputs of RB7:RB4
are OR’ed together to generate the RB port change
interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>).
This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. The
user, in the Interrupt Service Routine, can clear the
interrupt in the following manner:
a) Any read or write of PORTB. This will end the
mismatch condition.
b) Clear flag bit RBIF.
A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF.
Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and
allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared.
The interrupt-on-change feature is recommended for
wake-up on key depression operation and operations
where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change
feature. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while
using the interrupt-on-change feature.
This interrupt-on-mismatch feature, together with soft-
ware configurable pull-ups on these four pins, allow
easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for
wake-up on key depression. Refer to the application
note, AN552, “Implementing Wake-up on Key Stroke”
(DS00552).
RB0/INT is an external interrupt input pin and is
configured using the INTEDG bit (OPTION_REG<6>).
RB0/INT is discussed in detail in Section 14.11.1 “INT
Interrupt”.
FIGURE 4-5: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RB7:RB4 PINS
Data Latch
RBPU(2)
P
VDD
QD
CK
QD
CK
QD
EN
Data Bus
WR Port
WR TRIS
RD TRIS
RD Port
Weak
Pull-up
RD Port
RB0/INT
I/O pin(1)
TTL
Input
Buffer
Schmitt Trigger
Buffer
TRIS Latch
Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
2: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS
bit(s) and clear the RBPU bit (OPTION_REG<7>).
RB3/PGM
Data Latch
From other
RBPU(2)
P
VDD
I/O pin(1)
QD
CK
QD
CK
QD
EN
QD
EN
Data Bus
WR Port
WR TRIS
Set RBIF
TRIS Latch
RD TRIS
RD Port
RB7:RB4 pins
Weak
Pull-up
RD Port
Latch
TTL
Input
Buffer ST
Buffer
RB7:RB6
Q3
Q1
Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
2: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS
bit(s) and clear the RBPU bit (OPTION_REG<7>).
In Serial Programming Mode
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 45
PIC16F87XA
TABLE 4-3: PORTB FUNCTIONS
TABLE 4-4: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTB
Name Bit# Buffer Function
RB0/INT bit 0 TTL/ST(1) Input/output pin or external interrupt input. Internal software programmable
weak pull-up.
RB1 bit 1 TTL Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
RB2 bit 2 TTL Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
RB3/PGM(3) bit 3 TTL Input/output pin or programming pin in LVP mode. Internal software
programmable weak pull-up.
RB4 bit 4 TTL Input/output pin (with interrupt-on-change). Internal software programmable
weak pull-up.
RB5 bit 5 TTL Input/output pin (with interrupt-on-change). Internal software programmable
weak pull-up.
RB6/PGC bit 6 TTL/ST(2) Input/output pin (with interrupt-on-change) or in-circuit debugger pin.
Internal software programmable weak pull-up. Serial programming clock.
RB7/PGD bit 7 TTL/ST(2) Input/output pin (with interrupt-on-change) or in-circuit debugger pin.
Internal software programmable weak pull-up. Serial programming data.
Legend: TTL = TTL input, ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in Serial Programming mode or in-circuit debugger.
3: Low-Voltage ICSP Programming (LVP) is enabled by default which disables the RB3 I/O function. LVP
must be disabled to enable RB3 as an I/O pin and allow maximum compatibility to the other 28-pin and
40-pin mid-range devices.
Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
06h, 106h PORTB RB7 RB6 RB5 RB4 RB3 RB2 RB1 RB0 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
86h, 186h TRISB PORTB Data Direction Register 1111 1111 1111 1111
81h, 181h OPTION_REG RBPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0 1111 1111 1111 1111
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged. Shaded cells are not used by PORTB.
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 46 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
4.3 PORTC and the TRISC Register
PORTC is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The corre-
sponding data direction register is TRISC. Setting a
TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC
pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in
a High-Impedance mode). Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0)
will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i.e.,
put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).
PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions
(Table 4-5). PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input
buffers.
When the I2C module is enabled, the PORTC<4:3>
pins can be configured with normal I2C levels, or with
SMBus levels, by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>).
When enabling peripheral functions, care should be
taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. Some
peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an
output, while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to
make a pin an input. Since the TRIS bit override is in
effect while the peripheral is enabled, read-modify-
write instructions (BSF, BCF, XORWF) with TRISC as the
destination, should be avoided. The user should refer
to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct
TRIS bit settings.
FIGURE 4-6: PORTC BLOCK DIAGRAM
(PERIPHERAL OUTPUT
OVERRIDE) RC<2:0>,
RC<7:5>
FIGURE 4-7: PORTC BLOCK DIAGRAM
(PERIPHERAL OUTPUT
OVERRIDE) RC<4:3>
Port/Peripheral Select(2)
Data Bus
WR Port
WR TRIS
Data Latch
TRIS Latch
Schmitt
Trigger
QD
Q
CK
QD
EN
Peripheral Data Out 0
1
QD
Q
CK
P
N
VDD
VSS
RD Port
Peripheral
OE(3)
Peripheral Input
I/O
pin(1)
Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
2: Port/Peripheral Select signal selects between port
data and peripheral output.
3: Peripheral OE (Output Enable) is only activated if
Peripheral Select is active.
RD TRIS
Port/Peripheral Select(2)
Data Bus
WR Port
WR TRIS
Data Latch
TRIS Latch
Schmitt
Trigger
QD
Q
CK
QD
EN
Peripheral Data Out 0
1
QD
Q
CK
P
N
VDD
VSS
RD Port
Peripheral
OE(3)
SSP Input
I/O
pin(1)
Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
2: Port/Peripheral Select signal selects between port data
and peripheral output.
3: Peripheral OE (Output Enable) is only activated if
Peripheral Select is active.
0
1
CKE
SSPSTAT<6>
Schmitt
Trigger
with
SMBus
Levels
RD TRIS
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 47
PIC16F87XA
TABLE 4-5: PORTC FUNCTIONS
TABLE 4-6: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTC
Name Bit# Buffer Type Function
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI bit 0 ST Input/output port pin or Timer1 oscillator output/Timer1 clock input.
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 bit 1 ST Input/output port pin or Timer1 oscillator input or Capture2 input/
Compare2 output/PWM2 output.
RC2/CCP1 bit 2 ST Input/output port pin or Capture1 input/Compare1 output/
PWM1 output.
RC3/SCK/SCL bit 3 ST RC3 can also be the synchronous serial clock for both SPI and
I2C modes.
RC4/SDI/SDA bit 4 ST RC4 can also be the SPI data in (SPI mode) or data I/O (I2C mode).
RC5/SDO bit 5 ST Input/output port pin or Synchronous Serial Port data output.
RC6/TX/CK bit 6 ST Input/output port pin or USART asynchronous transmit or
synchronous clock.
RC7/RX/DT bit 7 ST Input/output port pin or USART asynchronous receive or
synchronous data.
Legend: ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
07h PORTC RC7 RC6 RC5 RC4 RC3 RC2 RC1 RC0 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
87h TRISC PORTC Data Direction Register 1111 1111 1111 1111
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged
TFUS La|ch 74“
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 48 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
4.4 PORTD and TRISD Registers
PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input
buffers. Each pin is individually configurable as an input
or output.
PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide
microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting
control bit, PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). In this mode, the
input buffers are TTL.
FIGURE 4-8: PORTD BLOCK DIAGRAM
(IN I/O PORT MODE)
TABLE 4-7: PORTD FUNCTIONS
TABLE 4-8: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTD
Note: PORTD and TRISD are not implemented
on the 28-pin devices.
Data
Bus
WR
Port
WR
TRIS
RD Port
Data Latch
TRIS Latch
RD
Schmitt
Trigger
Input
Buffer
I/O pin(1)
Note 1: I/O pins have protection diodes to VDD and VSS.
QD
CK
QD
CK
EN
QD
EN
TRIS
Name Bit# Buffer Type Function
RD0/PSP0 bit 0 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or Parallel Slave Port bit 0.
RD1/PSP1 bit 1 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or Parallel Slave Port bit 1.
RD2/PSP2 bit2 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or Parallel Slave Port bit 2.
RD3/PSP3 bit 3 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or Parallel Slave Port bit 3.
RD4/PSP4 bit 4 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or Parallel Slave Port bit 4.
RD5/PSP5 bit 5 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or Parallel Slave Port bit 5.
RD6/PSP6 bit 6 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or Parallel Slave Port bit 6.
RD7/PSP7 bit 7 ST/TTL(1) Input/output port pin or Parallel Slave Port bit 7.
Legend: ST = Schmitt Trigger input, TTL = TTL input
Note 1: Input buffers are Schmitt Triggers when in I/O mode and TTL buffers when in Parallel Slave Port mode.
Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
08h PORTD RD7 RD6 RD5 RD4 RD3 RD2 RD1 RD0 xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
88h TRISD PORTD Data Direction Register 1111 1111 1111 1111
89h TRISE IBF OBF IBOV PSPMODE PORTE Data Direction Bits 0000 -111 0000 -111
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTD.
2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS39582C-page 49
PIC16F87XA
4.5 PORTE and TRISE Register
PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5, RE1/WR/AN6
and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable
as inputs or outputs. These pins have Schmitt Trigger
input buffers.
The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the
microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is
set. In this mode, the user must make certain that the
TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured
as digital inputs. Also, ensure that ADCON1 is config-
ured for digital I/O. In this mode, the input buffers are
TTL.
Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also
controls the Parallel Slave Port operation.
PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. When
selected for analog input, these pins will read as ‘0’s.
TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins, even when
they are being used as analog inputs. The user must
make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when
using them as analog inputs.
FIGURE 4-9: PORTE BLOCK DIAGRAM
(IN I/O PORT MODE)
TABLE 4-9: PORTE FUNCTIONS
Note: PORTE and TRISE are not implemented
on the 28-pin devices.
Note: On a Power-on Reset, these pins are
configured as analog inputs and read as ‘0’.
Data
Bus
WR
Port
WR
TRIS
RD Port
Data Latch
TRIS Latch
RD
Schmitt
Trigger
Input
Buffer
QD
CK
QD
CK
EN
QD
EN
I/O pin(1)
Note 1: I/O pins have protection diodes to VDD and VSS.
TRIS
Name Bit# Buffer Type Function
RE0/RD/AN5 bit 0 ST/TTL(1)
I/O port pin or read control input in Parallel Slave Port mode or analog input:
RD
1 =Idle
0 = Read operation. Contents of PORTD register are output to PORTD
I/O pins (if chip selected).
RE1/WR/AN6 bit 1 ST/TTL(1)
I/O port pin or write control input in Parallel Slave Port mode or analog input:
WR
1 =Idle
0 = Write operation. Value of PORTD I/O pins is latched into PORTD
register (if chip selected).
RE2/CS/AN7 bit 2 ST/TTL(1)
I/O port pin or chip select control input in Parallel Slave Port mode or analog input:
CS
1 = Device is not selected
0 = Device is selected
Legend: ST = Schmitt Trigger input, TTL = TTL input
Note 1: Input buffers are Schmitt Triggers when in I/O mode and TTL buffers when in Parallel Slave Port mode.
Parallel Slave Port Slalus/Conlrol Bils: FORTE Dala Direction Bils:
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 50 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
TABLE 4-10: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTE
REGISTER 4-1: TRISE REGISTER (ADDRESS 89h)
Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
09h PORTE — — RE2 RE1 RE0 ---- -xxx ---- -uuu
89h TRISE IBF OBF IBOV PSPMODE PORTE Data Direction bits 0000 -111 0000 -111
9Fh ADCON1 ADFM ADCS2 PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 00-- 0000 00-- 0000
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTE.
R-0 R-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 U-0 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1
IBF OBF IBOV PSPMODE Bit 2Bit 1Bit 0
bit 7 bit 0
Parallel Slave Port Status/Control Bits:
bit 7 IBF: Input Buffer Full Status bit
1 = A word has been received and is waiting to be read by the CPU
0 = No word has been received
bit 6 OBF: Output Buffer Full Status bit
1 = The output buffer still holds a previously written word
0 = The output buffer has been read
bit 5 IBOV: Input Buffer Overflow Detect bit (in Microprocessor mode)
1 = A write occurred when a previously input word has not been read (must be cleared in
software)
0 = No overflow occurred
bit 4 PSPMODE: Parallel Slave Port Mode Select bit
1 = PORTD functions in Parallel Slave Port mode
0= PORTD functions in general purpose I/O mode
bit 3 Unimplemented: Read as0
PORTE Data Direction Bits:
bit 2 Bit 2: Direction Control bit for pin RE2/CS/AN7
1 = Input
0 = Output
bit 1 Bit 1: Direction Control bit for pin RE1/WR/AN6
1 = Input
0 = Output
bit 0 Bit 0: Direction Control bit for pin RE0/RD/AN5
1 = Input
0 = Output
Legend:
R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown
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PIC16F87XA
4.6 Parallel Slave Port
The Parallel Slave Port (PSP) is not implemented on
the PIC16F873A or PIC16F876A.
PORTD operates as an 8-bit wide Parallel Slave Port,
or microprocessor port, when control bit PSPMODE
(TRISE<4>) is set. In Slave mode, it is asynchronously
readable and writable by the external world through RD
control input pin, RE0/RD/AN5, and WR control input
pin, RE1/WR/AN6.
The PSP can directly interface to an 8-bit
microprocessor data bus. The external microprocessor
can read or write the PORTD latch as an 8-bit latch.
Setting bit PSPMODE enables port pin RE0/RD/AN5 to
be the RD input, RE1/WR/AN6 to be the WR input and
RE2/CS/AN7 to be the CS (Chip Select) input. For this
functionality, the corresponding data direction bits of
the TRISE register (TRISE<2:0>) must be configured
as inputs (set). The A/D port configuration bits,
PCFG3:PCFG0 (ADCON1<3:0>), must be set to
configure pins RE2:RE0 as digital I/O.
There are actually two 8-bit latches: one for data output
and one for data input. The user writes 8-bit data to the
PORTD data latch and reads data from the port pin
latch (note that they have the same address). In this
mode, the TRISD register is ignored since the external
device is controlling the direction of data flow.
A write to the PSP occurs when both the CS and WR
lines are first detected low. When either the CS or WR
lines become high (level triggered), the Input Buffer Full
(IBF) status flag bit (TRISE<7>) is set on the Q4 clock
cycle, following the next Q2 cycle, to signal the write is
complete (Figure 4-11). The interrupt flag bit, PSPIF
(PIR1<7>), is also set on the same Q4 clock cycle. IBF
can only be cleared by reading the PORTD input latch.
The Input Buffer Overflow (IBOV) status flag bit
(TRISE<5>) is set if a second write to the PSP is
attempted when the previous byte has not been read
out of the buffer.
A read from the PSP occurs when both the CS and RD
lines are first detected low. The Output Buffer Full
(OBF) status flag bit (TRISE<6>) is cleared
immediately (Figure 4-12), indicating that the PORTD
latch is waiting to be read by the external bus. When
either the CS or RD pin becomes high (level triggered),
the interrupt flag bit PSPIF is set on the Q4 clock cycle,
following the next Q2 cycle, indicating that the read is
complete. OBF remains low until data is written to
PORTD by the user firmware.
When not in PSP mode, the IBF and OBF bits are held
clear. However, if flag bit IBOV was previously set, it
must be cleared in firmware.
An interrupt is generated and latched into flag bit
PSPIF when a read or write operation is completed.
PSPIF must be cleared by the user in firmware and the
interrupt can be disabled by clearing the interrupt
enable bit PSPIE (PIE1<7>).
FIGURE 4-10: PORTD AND PORTE
BLOCK DIAGRAM
(PARALLEL SLAVE PORT)
Data Bus
WR
Port
RD Port
RDx pin
QD
CK
EN
QD
EN
One bit of PORTD
Set Interrupt Flag
PSPIF (PIR1<7>)
Read
Chip Select
Write
RD
CS
WR
TTL
TTL
TTL
TTL
Note 1: I/O pins have protection diodes to VDD and VSS.
PIC16F87XA
DS39582C-page 52 2001-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 4-11: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT WRITE WAVEFORMS
FIGURE 4-12: PARALLEL SLAVE PORT READ WAVEFORMS
TABLE 4-11: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PARALLEL SLAVE PORT
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
CS
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
WR
RD
IBF
OBF
PSPIF
PORTD<7:0>
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
CS
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
WR
IBF
PSPIF
RD
OBF
PORTD<7:0>
Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
08h PORTD Port Data Latch when written; Port pins when read xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
09h PORTE — — —RE2RE1RE0---- -xxx ---- -uuu
89h TRISE IBF OBF IBOV PSPMODE PORTE Data Direction bits 0000 -111 0000 -111
0Ch PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
9Fh ADCON1 ADFM ADCS2 PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 00-- 0000 00-- 0000
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Parallel Slave Port.
Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16F873A/876A; always maintain these bits clear.
$1} iiiiiiiiiiiii L7777777777774
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PIC16F87XA
5.0 TIMER0 MODULE
The Timer0 module timer/counter has the following
features:
8-bit timer/counter
Readable and writable
8-bit software programmable prescaler
Internal or external clock select
Interrupt on overflow from FFh to 00h
Edge select for external clock
Figure 5-1 is a block diagram of the Timer0 module and
the prescaler shared with the WDT.
Additional information on the Timer0 module is
available in the PIC® Mid-Range MCU Family Refer-
ence Manual (DS33023).
Timer mode is selected by clearing bit T0CS
(OPTION_REG<5>). In Timer mode, the Timer0
module will increment every instruction cycle (without
prescaler). If the TMR0 register is written, the incre-
ment is inhibited for the following two instruction cycles.
The user can work around this by writing an adjusted
value to the TMR0 register.
Counter mode is selected by setting bit T0CS
(OPTION_REG<5>). In Counter mode, Timer0 will
increment either on every rising or falling edge of pin
RA4/T0CKI. The incrementing edge is determined by
the Timer0 Source Edge Select bit, T0SE
(OPTION_REG<4>). Clearing bit T0SE selects the ris-
ing edge. Restrictions on the external clock input are
discussed in detail in Section 5.2 “Using Timer0 with
an External Clock”.
The prescaler is mutually exclusively shared between
the Timer0 module and the Watchdog Timer. The
prescaler is not readable or writable. Section 5.3
“Prescaler” details the operation of the prescaler.
5.1 Timer0 Interrupt
The TMR0 interrupt is generated when the TMR0
register overflows from FFh to 00h. This overflow sets
bit TMR0IF (INTCON<2>). The interrupt can be
masked by clearing bit TMR0IE (INTCON<5>). Bit
TMR0IF must be cleared in software by the Timer0
module Interrupt Service Routine before re-enabling
this interrupt. The TMR0 interrupt cannot awaken the
processor from Sleep since the timer is shut-off during
Sleep.
FIGURE 5-1: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE TIMER0/WDT PRESCALER
RA4/T0CKI
T0SE
pin
M
U
X
CLKO (= FOSC/4)
Sync
2
Cycles TMR0 Reg
8-bit Prescaler
8-to-1 MUX
M
U
X
MUX
Watchdog
Timer
PSA
01
0
1
WDT
Time-out
PS2:PS0
8
Note: T0CS, T0SE, PSA, PS2:PS0 are (OPTION_REG<5:0>).
PSA
WDT Enable bit
M
U
X
0
10
1
Data Bus
Set Flag bit TMR0IF
on Overflow
8
PSA
T0CS
PRESCALER
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5.2 Using Timer0 with an External
Clock
When no prescaler is used, the external clock input is
the same as the prescaler output. The synchronization
of T0CKI with the internal phase clocks is accom-
plished by sampling the prescaler output on the Q2 and
Q4 cycles of the internal phase clocks. Therefore, it is
necessary for T0CKI to be high for at least 2 TOSC (and
a small RC delay of 20 ns) and low for at least 2 TOSC
(and a small RC delay of 20 ns). Refer to the electrical
specification of the desired device.
5.3 Prescaler
There is only one prescaler available which is mutually
exclusively shared between the Timer0 module and the
Watchdog Timer. A prescaler assignment for the
Timer0 module means that there is no prescaler for the
Watchdog Timer and vice versa. This prescaler is not
readable or writable (see Figure 5-1).
The PSA and PS2:PS0 bits (OPTION_REG<3:0>)
determine the prescaler assignment and prescale ratio.
When assigned to the Timer0 module, all instructions
writing to the TMR0 register (e.g., CLRF 1, MOVWF 1,
BSF 1,x....etc.) will clear the prescaler. When assigned
to WDT, a CLRWDT instruction will clear the prescaler
along with the Watchdog Timer. The prescaler is not
readable or writable.
REGISTER 5-1: OPTION_REG REGISTER
Note: Writing to TMR0 when the prescaler is
assigned to Timer0 will clear the prescaler
count, but will not change the prescaler
assignment.
R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1 R/W-1
RBPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0
bit 7 bit 0
bit 7 RBPU
bit 6 INTEDG
bit 5 T0CS: TMR0 Clock Source Select bit
1 = Transition on T0CKI pin
0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (CLKO)
bit 4 T0SE: TMR0 Source Edge Select bit
1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on T0CKI pin
0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on T0CKI pin
bit 3 PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit
1 = Prescaler is assigned to the WDT
0 = Prescaler is assigned to the Timer0 module
bit 2-0 PS2:PS0: Prescaler Rate Select bits
Legend:
R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown
Note: To avoid an unintended device Reset, the instruction sequence shown in the PIC®
Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual (DS33023) must be executed when
changing the prescaler assignment from Timer0 to the WDT. This sequence must
be followed even if the WDT is disabled.
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
1 : 2
1 : 4
1 : 8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
1 : 256
1 : 1
1 : 2
1 : 4
1 : 8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
Bit Value TMR0 Rate WDT Rate
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TABLE 5-1: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER0
Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
01h,101h TMR0 Timer0 Module Register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
0Bh,8Bh,
10Bh,18Bh
INTCON GIE PEIE TMR0IE INTE RBIE TMR0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 0000 000u
81h,181h OPTION_REG RBPU INTEDG T0CS T0SE PSA PS2 PS1 PS0 1111 1111 1111 1111
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by Timer0.
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NOTES:
When TMR1CS : 1. When TMR1CS : El
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6.0 TIMER1 MODULE
The Timer1 module is a 16-bit timer/counter consisting
of two 8-bit registers (TMR1H and TMR1L) which are
readable and writable. The TMR1 register pair
(TMR1H:TMR1L) increments from 0000h to FFFFh
and rolls over to 0000h. The TMR1 interrupt, if enabled,
is generated on overflow which is latched in interrupt
flag bit, TMR1IF (PIR1<0>). This interrupt can be
enabled/disabled by setting/clearing TMR1 interrupt
enable bit, TMR1IE (PIE1<0>).
Timer1 can operate in one of two modes:
•As a Timer
As a Counter
The operating mode is determined by the clock select
bit, TMR1CS (T1CON<1>).
In Timer mode, Timer1 increments every instruction
cycle. In Counter mode, it increments on every rising
edge of the external clock input.
Timer1 can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing
control bit, TMR1ON (T1CON<0>).
Timer1 also has an internal “Reset input”. This Reset
can be generated by either of the two CCP modules
(Section 8.0 “Capture/Compare/PWM Modules”).
Register 6-1 shows the Timer1 Control register.
When the Timer1 oscillator is enabled (T1OSCEN is
set), the RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 and RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
pins become inputs. That is, the TRISC<1:0> value is
ignored and these pins read as ‘0’.
Additional information on timer modules is available in
the PIC® Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual
(DS33023).
REGISTER 6-1: T1CON: TIMER1 CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 10h)
U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0
T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON
bit 7 bit 0
bit 7-6 Unimplemented: Read as0
bit 5-4 T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0: Timer1 Input Clock Prescale Select bits
11 = 1:8 prescale value
10 = 1:4 prescale value
01 = 1:2 prescale value
00 = 1:1 prescale value
bit 3 T1OSCEN: Timer1 Oscillator Enable Control bit
1 = Oscillator is enabled
0 = Oscillator is shut-off (the oscillator inverter is turned off to eliminate power drain)
bit 2 T1SYNC: Timer1 External Clock Input Synchronization Control bit
When TMR1CS = 1:
1 = Do not synchronize external clock input
0 = Synchronize external clock input
When TMR1CS = 0:
This bit is ignored. Timer1 uses the internal clock when TMR1CS = 0.
bit 1 TMR1CS: Timer1 Clock Source Select bit
1 = External clock from pin RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI (on the rising edge)
0 = Internal clock (FOSC/4)
bit 0 TMR1ON: Timer1 On bit
1 = Enables Timer1
0 = Stops Timer1
Legend:
R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown
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6.1 Timer1 Operation in Timer Mode
Timer mode is selected by clearing the TMR1CS
(T1CON<1>) bit. In this mode, the input clock to the
timer is FOSC/4. The synchronize control bit, T1SYNC
(T1CON<2>), has no effect since the internal clock is
always in sync.
6.2 Timer1 Counter Operation
Timer1 may operate in either a Synchronous, or an
Asynchronous mode, depending on the setting of the
TMR1CS bit.
When Timer1 is being incremented via an external
source, increments occur on a rising edge. After Timer1
is enabled in Counter mode, the module must first have
a falling edge before the counter begins to increment.
FIGURE 6-1: TIMER1 INCREMENTING EDGE
6.3 Timer1 Operation in Synchronized
Counter Mode
Counter mode is selected by setting bit TMR1CS. In
this mode, the timer increments on every rising edge of
clock input on pin RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 when bit
T1OSCEN is set, or on pin RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI when
bit T1OSCEN is cleared.
If T1SYNC is cleared, then the external clock input is
synchronized with internal phase clocks. The synchro-
nization is done after the prescaler stage. The
prescaler stage is an asynchronous ripple counter.
In this configuration, during Sleep mode, Timer1 will not
increment even if the external clock is present since the
synchronization circuit is shut-off. The prescaler,
however, will continue to increment.
FIGURE 6-2: TIMER1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
T1CKI
(Default High)
T1CKI
(Default Low)
Note: Arrows indicate counter increments.
TMR1H TMR1L
T1OSC T1SYNC
TMR1CS
T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0 Q Clock
T1OSCEN
Enable
Oscillator(1)
FOSC/4
Internal
Clock
TMR1ON
On/Off
Prescaler
1, 2, 4, 8
Synchronize
det
1
0
0
1
Synchronized
Clock Input
2
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(2)
Note 1: When the T1OSCEN bit is cleared, the inverter is turned off. This eliminates power drain.
Set Flag bit
TMR1IF on
Overflow TMR1
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6.4 Timer1 Operation in
Asynchronous Counter Mode
If control bit T1SYNC (T1CON<2>) is set, the external
clock input is not synchronized. The timer continues to
increment asynchronous to the internal phase clocks.
The timer will continue to run during Sleep and can
generate an interrupt-on-overflow which will wake-up
the processor. However, special precautions in
software are needed to read/write the timer.
In Asynchronous Counter mode, Timer1 cannot be
used as a time base for capture or compare operations.
6.4.1 READING AND WRITING TIMER1 IN
ASYNCHRONOUS COUNTER MODE
Reading TMR1H or TMR1L while the timer is running
from an external asynchronous clock will ensure a valid
read (taken care of in hardware). However, the user
should keep in mind that reading the 16-bit timer in two
8-bit values itself, poses certain problems, since the
timer may overflow between the reads.
For writes, it is recommended that the user simply stop
the timer and write the desired values. A write conten-
tion may occur by writing to the timer registers while the
register is incrementing. This may produce an
unpredictable value in the timer register.
Reading the 16-bit value requires some care.
Examples 12-2 and 12-3 in the PIC® Mid-Range MCU
Family Reference Manual (DS33023) show how to
read and write Timer1 when it is running in
Asynchronous mode.
6.5 Timer1 Oscillator
A crystal oscillator circuit is built-in between pins T1OSI
(input) and T1OSO (amplifier output). It is enabled by
setting control bit, T1OSCEN (T1CON<3>). The oscil-
lator is a low-power oscillator, rated up to 200 kHz. It
will continue to run during Sleep. It is primarily intended
for use with a 32 kHz crystal. Table 6-1 shows the
capacitor selection for the Timer1 oscillator.
The Timer1 oscillator is identical to the LP oscillator.
The user must provide a software time delay to ensure
proper oscillator start-up.
TABLE 6-1: CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR
THE TIMER1 OSCILLATOR
6.6 Resetting Timer1 Using a CCP
Trigger Output
If the CCP1 or CCP2 module is configured in Compare
mode to generate a “special event trigger”
(CCP1M3:CCP1M0 = 1011), this signal will reset
Timer1.
Timer1 must be configured for either Timer or Synchro-
nized Counter mode to take advantage of this feature.
If Timer1 is running in Asynchronous Counter mode,
this Reset operation may not work.
In the event that a write to Timer1 coincides with a
special event trigger from CCP1 or CCP2, the write will
take precedence.
In this mode of operation, the CCPRxH:CCPRxL regis-
ter pair effectively becomes the period register for
Timer1.
Osc Type Freq. C1 C2
LP 32 kHz 33 pF 33 pF
100 kHz 15 pF 15 pF
200 kHz 15 pF 15 pF
These values are for design guidance only.
Crystals Tested:
32.768 kHz Epson C-001R32.768K-A ± 20 PPM
100 kHz Epson C-2 100.00 KC-P ± 20 PPM
200 kHz STD XTL 200.000 kHz ± 20 PPM
Note 1: Higher capacitance increases the stability
of oscillator but also increases the start-up
time.
2: Since each resonator/crystal has its own
characteristics, the user should consult
the resonator/crystal manufacturer for
appropriate values of external
components.
Note: The special event triggers from the CCP1
and CCP2 modules will not set interrupt
flag bit, TMR1IF (PIR1<0>).
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6.7 Resetting of Timer1 Register Pair
(TMR1H, TMR1L)
TMR1H and TMR1L registers are not reset to 00h on a
POR, or any other Reset, except by the CCP1 and
CCP2 special event triggers.
T1CON register is reset to 00h on a Power-on Reset,
or a Brown-out Reset, which shuts off the timer and
leaves a 1:1 prescale. In all other Resets, the register
is unaffected.
6.8 Timer1 Prescaler
The prescaler counter is cleared on writes to the
TMR1H or TMR1L registers.
TABLE 6-2: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER1 AS A TIMER/COUNTER
Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
0Bh,8Bh,
10Bh, 18Bh
INTCON GIE PEIE TMR0IE INTE RBIE TMR0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 0000 000u
0Ch PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
0Eh TMR1L Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
0Fh TMR1H Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
10h T1CON T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON --00 0000 --uu uuuu
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer1 module.
Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.
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7.0 TIMER2 MODULE
Timer2 is an 8-bit timer with a prescaler and a
postscaler. It can be used as the PWM time base for the
PWM mode of the CCP module(s). The TMR2 register
is readable and writable and is cleared on any device
Reset.
The input clock (FOSC/4) has a prescale option of
1:1, 1:4 or 1:16, selected by control bits
T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0 (T2CON<1:0>).
The Timer2 module has an 8-bit period register, PR2.
Timer2 increments from 00h until it matches PR2 and
then resets to 00h on the next increment cycle. PR2 is
a readable and writable register. The PR2 register is
initialized to FFh upon Reset.
The match output of TMR2 goes through a 4-bit
postscaler (which gives a 1:1 to 1:16 scaling inclusive)
to generate a TMR2 interrupt (latched in flag bit,
TMR2IF (PIR1<1>)).
Timer2 can be shut-off by clearing control bit, TMR2ON
(T2CON<2>), to minimize power consumption.
Register 7-1 shows the Timer2 Control register.
Additional information on timer modules is available in
the PIC® Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual
(DS33023).
FIGURE 7-1: TIMER2 BLOCK DIAGRAM
REGISTER 7-1: T2CON: TIMER2 CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 12h)
Comparator
TMR2
Sets Flag
TMR2 Reg
Output(1)
Reset
Postscaler
Prescaler
PR2 Reg
2
FOSC/4
1:1 to 1:16
1:1, 1:4, 1:16
EQ
4
bit TMR2IF
Note 1: TMR2 register output can be software selected by the
SSP module as a baud clock.
T2OUTPS3:
T2OUTPS0
T2CKPS1:
T2CKPS0
U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0
bit 7 bit 0
bit 7 Unimplemented: Read as0
bit 6-3 TOUTPS3:TOUTPS0: Timer2 Output Postscale Select bits
0000 = 1:1 postscale
0001 = 1:2 postscale
0010 = 1:3 postscale
1111 = 1:16 postscale
bit 2 TMR2ON: Timer2 On bit
1 = Timer2 is on
0 = Timer2 is off
bit 1-0 T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0: Timer2 Clock Prescale Select bits
00 = Prescaler is 1
01 = Prescaler is 4
1x = Prescaler is 16
Legend:
R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown
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7.1 Timer2 Prescaler and Postscaler
The prescaler and postscaler counters are cleared
when any of the following occurs:
a write to the TMR2 register
a write to the T2CON register
any device Reset (POR, MCLR Reset, WDT
Reset or BOR)
TMR2 is not cleared when T2CON is written.
7.2 Output of TMR2
The output of TMR2 (before the postscaler) is fed to the
SSP module, which optionally uses it to generate the
shift clock.
TABLE 7-1: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER2 AS A TIMER/COUNTER
Address Name Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
0Bh, 8Bh,
10Bh, 18Bh
INTCON GIE PEIE TMR0IE INTE RBIE TMR0IF INTF RBIF 0000 000x 0000 000u
0Ch PIR1 PSPIF(1) ADIF RCIF TXIF SSPIF CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
8Ch PIE1 PSPIE(1) ADIE RCIE TXIE SSPIE CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
11h TMR2 Timer2 Module’s Register 0000 0000 0000 0000
12h T2CON TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000
92h PR2 Timer2 Period Register 1111 1111 1111 1111
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer2 module.
Note 1: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.
CCP2 Modu‘e. CCP1 Modu‘e.
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8.0 CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM
MODULES
Each Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) module contains
a 16-bit register which can operate as a:
16-bit Capture register
16-bit Compare register
PWM Master/Slave Duty Cycle register
Both the CCP1 and CCP2 modules are identical in
operation, with the exception being the operation of the
special event trigger. Table 8-1 and Table 8-2 show the
resources and interactions of the CCP module(s). In
the following sections, the operation of a CCP module
is described with respect to CCP1. CCP2 operates the
same as CCP1 except where noted.
CCP1 Module:
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 (CCPR1) is com-
prised of two 8-bit registers: CCPR1L (low byte) and
CCPR1H (high byte). The CCP1CON register controls
the operation of CCP1. The special event trigger is
generated by a compare match and will reset Timer1.
CCP2 Module:
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 (CCPR2) is com-
prised of two 8-bit registers: CCPR2L (low byte) and
CCPR2H (high byte). The CCP2CON register controls
the operation of CCP2. The special event trigger is
generated by a compare match and will reset Timer1
and start an A/D conversion (if the A/D module is
enabled).
Additional information on CCP modules is available in
the PIC® Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual
(DS33023) and in application note AN594, “Using the
CCP Module(s)” (DS00594).
TABLE 8-1: CCP MODE – TIMER
RESOURCES REQUIRED
TABLE 8-2: INTERACTION OF TWO CCP MODULES
CCP Mode Timer Resource
Capture
Compare
PWM
Timer1
Timer1
Timer2
CCPx Mode CCPy Mode Interaction
Capture Capture Same TMR1 time base
Capture Compare The compare should be configured for the special event trigger which clears TMR1
Compare Compare The compare(s) should be configured for the special event trigger which clears TMR1
PWM PWM The PWMs will have the same frequency and update rate (TMR2 interrupt)
PWM Capture None
PWM Compare None
Caglure mode Cumgare mode. FWM mode.
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REGISTER 8-1: CCP1CON REGISTER/CCP2CON REGISTER (ADDRESS 17h/1Dh)
U-0 U-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0 R/W-0
CCPxX CCPxY CCPxM3 CCPxM2 CCPxM1 CCPxM0
bit 7 bit 0
bit 7-6 Unimplemented: Read as0
bit 5-4 CCPxX:CCPxY: PWM Least Significant bits
Capture mode:
Unused.
Compare mode:
Unused.
PWM mode:
These bits are the two LSbs of the PWM duty cycle. The eight MSbs are found in CCPRxL.
bit 3-0 CCPxM3:CCPxM0: CCPx Mode Select bits
0000 = Capture/Compare/PWM disabled (resets CCPx module)
0100 = Capture mode, every falling edge
0101 = Capture mode, every rising edge
0110 = Capture mode, every 4th rising edge
0111 = Capture mode, every 16th rising edge
1000 = Compare mode, set output on match (CCPxIF bit is set)
1001 = Compare mode, clear output on match (CCPxIF bit is set)
1010 = Compare mode, generate software interrupt on match (CCPxIF bit is set, CCPx pin is
unaffected)
1011 = Compare mode, trigger special event (CCPxIF bit is set, CCPx pin is unaffected); CCP1
resets TMR1; CCP2 resets TMR1 and starts an A/D conversion (if A/D module is
enabled)
11xx = PWM mode
Legend:
R = Readable bit W = Writable bit U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR ‘1’ = Bit is set ‘0’ = Bit is cleared x = Bit is unknown
1 }
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8.1 Capture Mode
In Capture mode, CCPR1H:CCPR1L captures the
16-bit value of the TMR1 register when an event occurs
on pin RC2/CCP1. An event is defined as one of the
following:
Every falling edge
Every rising edge
Every 4th rising edge
Every 16th rising edge
The type of event is configured by control bits,
CCP1M3:CCP1M0 (CCPxCON<3:0>). When a cap-
ture is made, the interrupt request flag bit, CCP1IF
(PIR1<2>), is set. The interrupt flag must be cleared in
software. If another capture occurs before the value in
register CCPR1 is read, the old captured value is
overwritten by the new value.