MT9P031 Datasheet by onsemi

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© Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2006
January, 2017 Rev. 10
1Publication Order Number:
MT9P031/D
MT9P031
1/2.5-Inch 5 Mp CMOS
Digital Image Sensor
General Description
The ON Semiconductor MT9P031 is a 1/2.5inch CMOS
activepixel digital image sensor with an active imaging pixel array of
2592 H x 1944 V. It incorporates sophisticated camera functions
onchip such as windowing, column and row skip mode, and snapshot
mode. It is programmable through a simple twowire serial interface.
The 5 Mp CMOS image sensor features ON Semiconductors
breakthrough lownoise CMOS imaging technology that achieves
CCD image quality (based on signaltonoise ratio and lowlight
sensitivity) while maintaining the inherent size, cost, and integration
advantages of CMOS.
Table 1. KEY PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS
Parameter Value
Optical Format 1/2.5-inch (4:3)
Active Imager Size 5.70 mm (H) x 4.28 mm (V)
7.13 mm Diagonal
Active Pixels 2592 H x 1944 V
Pixel Size 2.2 x 2.2 μm
Color Filter Array RGB Bayer Pattern
Shutter Type Global Reset Release (GRR),
Snapshot Only
Electronic Rolling Shutter (ERS)
Maximum Data Rate / Pixel Clock 96 Mp/s at 96 MHz (2.8 V I/O)
48 Mp/s at 48 MHz (1.8 V I/O)
Frame Rate Full Resolution Programmable up to 14 fps
HDTV (640 x 480,
with binning)
Programmable up to 53 fps
ADC Resolution 12-bit, On-chip
Responsivity 1.4 V/lux-sec (550 nm)
Pixel Dynamic Range 70.1 dB
SNRMAX 38.1 dB
Supply Voltage I/O 1.73.1 V
Digital 1.71.9 V (1.8 V Nominal)
Analog 2.63.1 V (2.8 V Nominal)
Power Consumption 381 mW at 14 fps Full Resolution
Operating Temperature –30°C to +70°C
Packaging 48-pin iLCC, Die
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See detailed ordering and shipping information on page 2 of
this data sheet.
ORDERING INFORMATION
ILCC48 10x10
CASE 847AA
A
pplications
High Resolution Network Cameras
Wide FOV Cameras
720 P–60 fps Cameras
Dome Cameras with Electronic Pan, Tile,
and Zoom
Hybrid Video Cameras with High
Resolution Stills
Detailed Feature Extraction for Smart
Cameras
Features
High Frame Rate
Superior Low-light Performance
Low Dark Current
Global Reset Release, which Starts the
Exposure of All Rows Simultaneously
Bulb Exposure Mode, for Arbitrary
Exposure Times
Snapshot Mode to Take Frames on Demand
Horizontal and Vertical Mirror Image
Column and row skip modes to reduce
image size without reducing fieldofview
(FOV)
Column and Row Binning Modes to
Improve Image Quality when Resizing
Simple Two-wire Serial Interface
Programmable Controls: Gain, Frame Rate,
Frame Size, Exposure
Automatic Black Level Calibration
On-chip Phase-Locked Loop (PLL)
Figure 1. Block Diagram www.cnsemi.com 2
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ORDERING INFORMATION
Table 2. AVAILABLE PART NUMBERS
Part Number Product Description Orderable Product Attribute Description
MT9P031D00STCC18BC1200 5 MP 1/3” CIS Die Sales, 200mm Thickness
MT9P031D00STMC18BC1200 5 MP 1/3” CIS Die Sales, 200mm Thickness
MT9P031I12STCDP 5 MP 1/3” CIS Dry Pack with Protective Film
MT9P031I12STCDR 5 MP 1/3” CIS Dry Pack without Protective Film
MT9P031I12STCDR1 5 MP 1/3” CIS Dry Pack Single Tray without Protective Film
MT9P031I12STCTP 5 MP 1/3” CIS Tape & Reel with Protective Film
MT9P031I12STMDP 5 MP 1/3” CIS Dry Pack with Protective Film
MT9P031I12STMDP1 5 MP 1/3” CIS Dry Pack Single Tray with Protective Film
MT9P031I12STMDR 5 MP 1/3” CIS Dry Pack without Protective Film
MT9P031I12STMDR1 5 MP 1/3” CIS Dry Pack Single Tray without Protective Film
DESCRIPTION
The MT9P031 sensor can be operated in its default mode
or programmed by the user for frame size, exposure, gain
setting, and other parameters. The default mode outputs a
full resolution image at 14 frames per second (fps).
An onchip analogtodigital converter (ADC) provides
12 bits per pixel. FRAME_VALID (FV) and LINE_VALID
(LV) signals are output on dedicated pins, along with a pixel
clock that is synchronous with valid data.
The MT9P031produces extraordinarily clear, sharp
digital pictures, and its ability to capture both continuous
video and single frames makes it the perfect choice for a
wide range of consumer and industrial applications,
including cell phones, digital still cameras, digital video
cameras, and PC cameras..
FUNCTIONAL OVERVIEW
The MT9P031 is a progressivescan sensor that generates
a stream of pixel data at a constant frame rate. It uses an
onchip, phaselocked loop (PLL) to generate all internal
clocks from a single master input clock running between
6 and 27 MHz. The maximum pixel rate is 96 Mp/s,
corresponding to a clock rate of 96 MHz. Figure 1 illustrates
a block diagram of the sensor.
Figure 1. Block Diagram
Pixel Array
2752H x 2004V
SCLK
SDATA
SADDR
PIXCLK
DOUT[11:0]
LV
FV
STROBE
Analog Signal Chain Data Path
TRIGGER
EXTCLK
RESET_BAR
STANDBY_BAR
OE
Array Control
Output
Serial
Interface
User interaction with the sensor is through the twowire
serial bus, which communicates with the array control,
analog signal chain, and digital signal chain. The core of the
sensor is a 5 Mp activepixel array. The timing and control
circuitry sequences through the rows of the array, resetting
and then reading each row in turn. In the time interval
between resetting a row and reading that row, the pixels in
the row integrate incident light. The exposure is controlled
by varying the time interval between reset and readout. Once
a row has been read, the data from the columns is sequenced
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through an analog signal chain (providing offset correction
and gain), and then through an ADC. The output from the
ADC is a 12bit value for each pixel in the array. The ADC
output passes through a digital processing signal chain
(which provides further data path corrections and applies
digital gain). The pixel data are output at a rate of up to
96 Mp/s, in addition to frame and line synchronization
signals.
Figure 2. Typical Configuration (Connection)
DOUT [11:0]
PIXCLK
FV
LV
STROBE
S
ADDR
RESET_BAR
STANDBY_BAR
SCLK
SDATA
TRIGGER
VDD_IO
AGND3
TEST
1.5kΩ
1
1.5kΩ
1
VDD_IO2,3
VDD
VDD2,3
1μF
RSVD
DGND3
VDD_PLL
VAA_PIX
VAA
VAA2,3
OE
To
controller
From
controller
Master
clock
EXTCLK
1.0kΩ
Notes:
1. A resistor value of 1.5 kΩ is recommended, but may be greater for slower two-wire speed.
2. All power supplies should be adequately decoupled.
3. All DGND pins must be tied together, as must all AGND pins, all VDD_IO pins, and all VDD pins.
48
Figure 3. 48-Pin iLCC 10 x 10 Package Pinout Diagram (Top View)
123456 44 43
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
FRAME_VALID
LINE_VALID
STROBE
DGND
VDD_ IO
VDD
SADDR
STANDBY_BAR
TRIGGER
RESET_BAR
OE
NC
DOUT8
DOUT7
DOUT6
VDD_IO
DOUT5
DOUT4
DOUT3
DOUT2
DOUT1
DOUT0
PIXCLK
EXTCLK
NC
TEST
TEST
AGND
VAA
VAA
VDD_PLL
DGND
NC
NC
NC
NC
RSVD
SDATA
SCLK
TEST
AGND
VAA_PIX
VAA_PIX
VDD
DGND
DOUT11
DOUT10
DOUT9
48 47 46 45
17
18
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Table 3. PIN DESCRIPTION
Name Type Description
RESET_BAR Input When LOW, the MT9P031 asynchronously resets. When driven HIGH,
it resumes normal operation with all configuration registers set to factory
defaults.
EXTCLK Input External input clock.
SCLK Input Serial clock. Pull to VDD_IO with a 1.5 kΩ resistor.
OE Input When HIGH, the PIXCLK, DOUT, FV, LV, and STROBE outputs enter a High-Z.
When driven LOW, normal operation resumes.
STANDBY_BAR Input Standby. When LOW, the chip enters a low-power standby mode. It resumes
normal operation when the pin is driven HIGH.
TRIGGER Input Snapshot trigger. Used to trigger one frame of output in snapshot modes,
and to indicate the end of exposure in bulb exposure modes.
SADDR Input Serial address. When HIGH, the MT9P031 responds to device ID (BA)H.
When LOW, it responds to serial device ID (90)H.
SDATA I/O Serial data. Pull to VDD_IO with a 1.5 kΩ resistor.
PIXCLK Output Pixel clock. The DOUT, FV, LV, and STROBE outputs should be captured on the
falling edge of this signal.
DOUT[11:0] Output Pixel data. Pixel data is 12-bit. MSB (DOUT11) through LSB (DOUT0) of each
pixel, to be captured on the falling edge of PIXCLK.
FRAME_VALID Output Frame valid. Driven HIGH during active pixels and horizontal blanking of each
frame and LOW during vertical blanking.
LINE_VALID Output Line valid. Driven HIGH with active pixels of each line and LOW during
blanking periods.
STROBE Output Snapshot strobe. Driven HIGH when all pixels are exposing in snapshot
modes.
VDD Supply Digital supply voltage. Nominally 1.8 V.
VDD_IO Supply IO supply voltage. Nominally 1.8 or 2.8 V.
DGND Supply Digital ground.
VAA Supply Analog supply voltage. Nominally 2.8 V.
VAA_PIX Supply Pixel supply voltage. Nominally 2.8 V, connected externally to VAA.
AGND Supply Analog ground.
VDD_PLL Supply PLL supply voltage. Nominally 2.8 V, connected externally to VAA.
TEST Tie to AGND for normal device operation (factory use only).
RSVD Tie to DGND for normal device operation (factory use only).
NC No connect.
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PIXEL DATA FORMAT
Pixel Array Structure
The MT9P031 pixel array consists of a 2752column by
2004row matrix of pixels addressed by column and row.
The address (column 0, row 0) represents the upperright
corner of the entire array, looking at the sensor, as shown in
Figure 4.
The array consists of a 2592column by 1944row active
region in the center representing the default output image,
surrounded by a boundary region (also active), surrounded
by a border of dark pixels (see Table 4 and Table 5). The
boundary region can be used to avoid edge effects when
doing color processing to achieve a 2592 x 1944 result
image, while the optically black column and rows can be
used to monitor the black level.
Pixels are output in a Bayer pattern format consisting of
four “colors”GreenR, GreenB, Red, and Blue (Gr, Gb, R,
B)representing three filter colors. When no mirror modes
are enabled, the first row output alternates between Gr and
R pixels, and the second row output alternates between B
and Gb pixels. The Gr and Gb pixels have the same color
filter, but they are treated as separate colors by the data path
and analog signal chain.
Table 4. PIXEL TYPE BY COLUMN
Column Pixel Type
0–9 Dark (10)
10–15 Active boundary (6)
16–2607 Active image (2592)
2608–2617 Active boundary (10)
2618–2751 Dark (134)
Table 5. PIXEL TYPE BY ROW
Column Pixel Type
0–49 Dark (50)
50–53 Active boundary (4)
54–1997 Active image (1944)
1998–2001 Active boundary (3)
2002–2003 Dark (2)
Figure 4. Pixel Array Description
(2751, 2003)
10 black columns
2 black rows
50 black rows (0,0)
134 black columns
Active Image
2592 x 1944
active pixels
4 (16,54)
6
10
4
Figure 5. Pixel Color Pattern Detail (Top Right Corner)
First clear
pixel (10,50)
black pixels
column readout direction
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
row
readout
direction
Gr
B
Gr
B
Gr
B
R
Gb
R
Gb
R
Gb
Gr
B
Gr
B
Gr
B
R
Gb
R
Gb
R
Gb
Gr
B
Gr
B
Gr
B
R
Gb
R
Gb
R
Gb
Gr
B
Gr
B
Gr
B
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Default Readout Order
By convention, the sensor core pixel array is shown with
pixel (0,0) in the top right corner (see Figure 4). This reflects
the actual layout of the array on the die. Also, the first pixel
data read out of the sensor in default condition is that of pixel
(16, 54).
When the sensor is imaging, the active surface of the
sensor faces the scene as shown in Figure 5. When the image
is read out of the sensor, it is read one row at a time, with the
rows and columns sequenced as shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6. Imaging a Scene
Lens
Pixel (0,0)
Row
Readout
Order
Column Readout Order
Scene
Sensor (rear view)
Output Data Format (Default Mode)
The MT9P031 image data is read out in a progressive
scan. Valid image data is surrounded by horizontal blanking
and vertical blanking, as shown in Figure 7. LV is HIGH
during the shaded region of the figure. FV timing is
described in “Output Data Timing”.
Figure 7. Spatial Illustration of Image Readout
P
0,0
P
0,1
P
0,2 .....................................P
0,n1P
0,n
P
1,0
P
1,1
P
1,2 .....................................P
1,n1P
1,n
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
P
m1,0
P
m1,1 .....................................P
m1,n1Pm1,n
P
m,0 P
m,1 .....................................P
m,n1P
m,n
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
VALID IMAGE HORIZONTAL
BLANKING
VERTICAL BLANKING VERTICAL/HORIZONTAL
BLANKING
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Readout Sequence
Typically, the readout window is set to a region including
only active pixels. The user has the option of reading out
dark regions of the array, but if this is done, consideration
must be given to how the sensor reads the dark regions for
its own purposes.
Rows are read from the array in the following order:
1. Dark rows:
If Show_Dark_Rows is set, or if Manual_BLC is
clear, dark rows on the top of the array are read
out. The set of rows sampled are adjusted based on
the Row_Bin setting such that there are 8 rows
after binning, as shown in the Table 6. The
Row_Skip setting is ignored for the dark row
region.
If Show_Dark_Rows is clear and Manual_BLC is
set, no dark rows are read from the array as part of
this step, allowing all rows to be part of the active
image. This does not change the frame time, as
HDR is included in the vertical blank period.
2. Active image:
The rows defined by the row start, row size, bin,
skip, and row mirror settings are read out. If this
set of rows includes rows read out above, those
rows are resampled, meaning that the data is
invalid.
Table 6. DARK ROWS SAMPLED AS A FUNCTION
OF ROW_BIN
Row_Bin HDR (Dark Rows After Binning)
0 8
1 8
3 8
Columns are read out in the following order:
1. Dark columns:
If either Show_Dark_Columns or Row_BLC is
set, dark columns on the left side of the image are
read out followed by those on the right side. The
set of columns read is shown in Table 7. The
Column_Skip setting is ignored for the dark
columns.
If neither Show_Dark_Columns nor Row_BLC is
set, no dark columns are read, allowing all
columns to be part of the active image. This does
not change the row time, as WDC is included in the
vertical blank period.
2. Active image:
The columns defined by column start, column size,
bin, skip, and column mirror settings are read out.
If this set of columns includes the columns read
out above, these columns are resampled, meaning
the data is invalid.
Table 7. DARK COLUMNS SAMPLED AS
A FUNCTION OF COLUMN_BIN
Column_Bin WDC (Dark Columns After Binning)
0 80
1 40
3 20
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OUTPUT DATA TIMING
The output images are divided into frames, which are
further divided into lines. By default, the sensor produces
1944 rows of 2592 columns each. The FV and LV signals
indicate the boundaries between frames and lines,
respectively. PIXCLK can be used as a clock to latch the
data. For each PIXCLK cycle, one 12bit pixel datum
outputs on the DOUT pins. When both FV and LV are
asserted, the pixel is valid. PIXCLK cycles that occur when
FV is negated are called vertical blanking. PIXCLK cycles
that occur when only LV is negated are called horizontal
blanking.
Figure 8. Default Pixel Output Timing
PIXCLK
FV
LV
DOUT [11:0] P0 P1 P2 P3 P4
Vertical Blanking Horiz Blanking Valid Image Data Horiz Blanking Vertical Blanking
Pn
LV and FV
The timing of the FV and LV outputs is closely related to
the row time and the frame time.
FV will be asserted for an integral number of row times,
which will normally be equal to the height of the output
image. If Show_Dark_Rows is set, the dark sample rows
will be output before the active image, and FV will be
extended to include them. In this case, FV’s leading edge
happens at time 0.
LV will be asserted during the valid pixels of each row.
The leading edge of LV will be offset from the leading edge
of FV by 609 PIXCLKs. If Show_Dark_Columns is set, the
dark columns will be output before the image pixels, and LV
will be extended back to include them; in this case, the first
pixel of the active image still occurs at the same position
relative to the leading edge of FV. Normally, LV will only be
asserted if FV is asserted; this is configurable as described
below.
LV Format Options
The default situation is for LV to be negated when FV is
negated. The other option available is shown in Figure 9. If
Continuous_LV is set, LV is asserted even when FV is not,
with the same period and duty cycle. If XOR_Line_Valid is
set, but not Continuous_Line_Valid, the resulting LV will be
the XOR of FV and the continuous LV.
Figure 9. LV Format Options
Default
Continuous LV
XOR LV
FV
LV
FV
LV
FV
LV
The timing of an entire frame is shown in Figure 10.
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Figure 10. Frame Timing
LV
Column Readout
t ROW
W
Row Readout
FV
H
tFRAME
Blanking Region
Active Image
Dark Rows
Dark Columns
HDR
WDC
Frame Time
The pixel clock (PIXCLK) represents the time needed to
sample 1 pixel from the array, and is typically equal to 1
EXTCLK period. The sensor outputs data at the maximum
rate of 1 pixel per PIXCLK. One row time (tROW) is the
period from the first pixel output in a row to the first pixel
output in the next row. The row time and frame time are
defined by equations in Table 8.
Table 8. FRAME TIME
Parameters Name Equation
Default Timing at
EXTCLK = 96 MHz
fps Frame Rate 1/tFRAME 14
tFRAME Frame Time (H + max(VB, VBMIN)) × tROW 71.66 ms
tROW Row Time 2 × tPIXCLK x max(((W/2) + max(HB, HBMIN)),
(41 + 346 x (Row_Bin+1) + 99))
36.38 μs
WOutput Image Width 2 × ceil((Column_Size + 1) / (2 × (Column_Skip + 1))) 2592 PIXCLK
HOutput Image Height 2 × ceil((Row_Size + 1) / (2 × (Row_Skip + 1))) 1944 rows
SW Shutter Width max (1, (2 * 16 × Shutter_Width_Upper)
+ Shutter_Width_Lower)
1943 rows
HB Horizontal Blanking Horizontal_Blank + 1 1 PIXCLK
VB Vertical Blanking Vertical_Blank + 1 26 rows
HBMIN Minimum Horizontal Blanking 346 × (Row_Bin + 1) + 64 + (WDC / 2) 450 PIXCLK
VBMIN Minimum Vertical Blanking max (8, SW H) + 1 9 rows
tPIXCLK Pixclk Period 1/fPIXCLK 10.42 ns
The minimum horizontal blanking (HBMIN) values for
various Row_Bin and Column_Bin settings are shown in
Table 9.
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Table 9. HBMIN VALUES FOR ROW_BIN VS. COLUMN_BIN SETTINGS
Column_bin (WDC)
Row_bin 0 1 3
0 450 430 420
1 796 776 766
3 1488 1468 1458
Frame Rates at Common Resolutions
Table 10 and Table 11 show examples of register settings
to achieve common resolutions and their frame rates. Frame
rates are shown both with subsampling enabled and
disabled.
Table 10. STANDARD RESOLUTIONS
Resolution
Frame
Rate
Sub
sampling
Mode
Column_
Size
(R0x04)
Row_
Size
(R0x03)
Shutter_
Width_
Lower
(R0x09)
Row_
Bin
(R0x22
[5:4])
Row_
Skip
(R0x22
[2:0])
Column_
Bin
(R0x23
[5:4])
Column_
Skip
(R0x23
[2:0])
2592 x 1944
(Full Resolution)
14 N/A 2591 1943 <1943 0 0 0 0
2048 x 1536 QXGA 21 N/A 2047 1535 <1535 0 0 0 0
1600 x 1200 UXGA 31 N/A 1599 1199 <1199 0 0 0 0
1280 x 1024 SXGA 42 N/A 1279 1023 <1023 0 0 0 0
1024 x 768 XGA 63 N/A 1023 767 <767 0 0 0 0
63 skipping 2047 1535 0 1 0 1
47 binning 2047 1535 1 1 1 1
800 x 600 SVGA 90 N/A 799 599 <599 0 0 0 0
90 skipping 1599 1199 0 1 0 1
65 binning 1599 1199 1 1 1 1
640 x 480 VGA 123 N/A 639 479 <479 0 0 0 0
123 skipping 2559 1919 0 3 0 3
53 binning 2559 1919 3 3 3 3
Table 11. WIDE SCREEN (16:9) RESOLUTIONS
Resolution
Frame
Rate
Sub
sampling
Mode
Column_
Size
(R0x04)
Row_
Size
(R0x03)
Shutter_
Width_
Lower
(R0x09)
Row_
Bin
(R0x22
[5:4])
Row_
Skip
(R0x22
[2:0])
Column_
Bin
(R0x23
[5:4])
Column_
Skip
(R0x23
[2:0])
1920 x 1080 HDTV 31 N/A 1919 1079 <1079 0 0 0 0
1280 x 720 HDTV 60 N/A 1279 719 <719 0 0 0 0
60 skipping 2559 1439 <719 0 1 0 1
45 skipping 2559 1439 <719 1 1 1 1
1. It is assumed that the minimum horizontal blanking and the minimum vertical blanking conditions are met, and that all other registers are
set to default values.
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SERIAL BUS DESCRIPTION
Registers are written to and read from the MT9P031
through the twowire serial interface bus. The MT9P031 is
a serial interface slave and is controlled by the serial clock
(SCLK), which is driven by the serial interface master. Data
is transferred into and out of the MT9P031 through the serial
data (SDATA) line. The SDATA line is pulled up to
VDD_IO offchip by a 1.5 kΩ resistor. Either the slave or
master device can pull the SDATA line LOWthe serial
interface protocol determines which device is allowed to
pull the SDATA line down at any given time.
Protocol
The two-wire serial defines several different transmission
codes, as follows:
1. a start bit
2. the slave device 8-bit address
3. an (a no) acknowledge bit
4. an 8-bit message
5. a stop bit
Sequence
A typical READ or WRITE sequence begins by the
master sending a start bit. After the start bit, the master sends
the slave device’s 8bit address. The last bit of the address
determines if the request is a READ or a WRITE, where a
“0” indicates a WRITE and a “1”indicates a READ. The
slave device acknowledges its address by sending an
acknowledge bit back to the master.
If the request is a WRITE, the master then transfers the
8bit register address to which a WRITE should take place.
The slave sends an acknowledge bit to indicate that the
register address has been received. The master then transfers
the data 8 bits at a time, with the slave sending an
acknowledge bit after each 8 bits. The MT9P031 uses 16bit
data for its internal registers, thus requiring two 8bit
transfers to write to one register. After 16 bits are transferred,
the register address is automatically incremented, so that the
next 16 bits are written to the next register address. The
master stops writing by sending a start or stop bit.
A typical READ sequence is executed as follows. First the
master sends the writemode slave address and 8bit
register address, just as in the WRITE request. The master
then sends a start bit and the readmode slave address. The
master then clocks out the register data 8 bits at a time. The
master sends an acknowledge bit after each 8bit transfer.
The register address is automaticallyincremented after
every 16 bits is transferred. The data transfer is stopped
when the master sends a noacknowledge bit.
Bus Idle State
The bus is idle when both the data and clock lines are
HIGH. Control of the bus is initiated with a start bit, and the
bus is released with a stop bit. Only the master can generate
the start and stop bits.
Start Bit
The start bit is defined as a HIGHtoLOW transition of
the data line while the clock line is HIGH.
Stop Bit
The stop bit is defined as a LOWtoHIGH transition of
the data line while the clock line is HIGH.
Slave Address
The 8bit address of a twowire serial interface device
consists of 7 bits of address and 1 bit of direction. A “0” in
the LSB (least significant bit) of the address indicates write
mode (0xBA), and a “1” indicates read mode (0xBB).
Data Bit Transfer
One data bit is transferred during each clock pulse. The
serial interface clock pulse is provided by the master. The
data must be stable during the HIGH period of the twowire
serial interface clockit can only change when the serial
clock is LOW. Data is transferred 8 bits at a time, followed
by an acknowledge bit.
Acknowledge Bit
The master generates the acknowledge clock pulse. The
transmitter (which is the master when writing, or the slave
when reading) releases the data line, and the receiver
indicates an acknowledge bit by pulling the data line LOW
during the acknowledge clock pulse.
No-Acknowledge Bit
The noacknowledge bit is generated when the data line
is not pulled down by the receiver during the acknowledge
clock pulse. A noacknowledge bit is used to terminate a
read sequence.
H W DxBB ADDR ‘ ‘ 0000 0010 Rengo9 OxBAADDR nse
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TWO-WIRE SERIAL INTERFACE SAMPLE WRITE AND READ SEQUENCES
16-Bit WRITE Sequence
A typical WRITE sequence for writing 16 bits to a register
is shown in Figure 11. A start bit given by the master,
followed by the write address, starts the sequence. The
image sensor then gives an acknowledge bit and expects the
register address to come first, followed by the 16bit data.
After each 8bit transfer, the image sensor gives an
acknowledge bit. All 16 bits must be written before the
register is updated. After 16 bits are transferred, the register
address is automatically incremented so that the next 16 bits
are written to the next register. The master stops writing by
sending a start or stop bit.
Figure 11. Timing Diagram Showing a WRITE to Reg0x09 with the Value 0x0284
SCLK
SDATA
START ACK
0xBA ADDR
ACK ACK ACK
STOP
Reg0x09 1000 0100
0000 0010
16-Bit READ Sequence
A typical READ sequence is shown in Figure 12. First the
master has to write the register address, as in a WRITE
sequence. Then a start bit and the read address specify that
a READ is about to happen from the register. The master
then clocks out the register data 8 bits at a time. The master
sends an acknowledge bit after each 8-bit transfer. The
register address should be incremented after every 16 bits is
transferred. The data transfer is stopped when the master
sends a no-acknowledge bit.
Figure 12. Timing Diagram Showing a READ to Reg0x09 with the Value 0x0284
SCLK
SDATA
START ACK
0xBA ADDR 0xBB ADDR 0000 0010
Reg0x09
ACK ACK ACK
1000 0100
NACK
START STOP
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FEATURES
Reset
The MT9P031 may be reset by using RESET_BAR
(active LOW) or the reset register.
Hard Reset
Assert (LOW) RESET_BAR, it is not necessary to clock
the device. All registers return to the factory defaults. When
the pin is negated (HIGH), the chip resumes normal
operation.
Soft Reset
Set the Reset register field to “1” (R0x0D[0] = 1). All
registers except the following will be reset:
Chip_Enable
Synchronize_Changes
Reset
Use_PLL
Power_PLL
PLL_m_Factor
PLL_n_Divider
PLL_p1_Divider
When the field is returned to “0,” the chip resumes normal
operation.
Power Up and Power Down
When first powering on the MT9P031, follow this
sequence:
1. Ensure RESET_BAR is asserted (LOW).
2. Bring up the supplies. If both the analog and the
digital supplies cannot be brought up
simultaneously, ensure the digital supply comes up
first.
3. Negate RESET_BAR (HIGH) to bring up the
sensor.
When powering down, be sure to follow this sequence to
ensure that I/Os do not load any buses that they are
connected to.
1. Assert RESET_BAR.
2. Remove the supplies.
Clocks
The MT9P031 requires one clock (EXTCLK), which is
nominally 96 MHz. By default, this results in pixels being
output on the DOUT pins at a maximum data rate of 96 Mp/s.
With VDD_IO = 1.8 V, maximum master clock and
maximum data rate become 48 MHz and 48 Mp/s,
respectively. The EXTCLK clock can be divided down
internally by setting Divide_Pixel_Clock to a nonzero
value. This slows down the operation of the chip as though
EXTCLK had been divided externally.
fEXTCLK if Divide_Pixel_Clock = 0
fPIXCLK= {
fEXTCLK / (2 × Divide_Pixel_Clock) otherwise
The DOUT, LV, FV, and STROBE outputs are launched on
the rising edge of PIXCLK, and should be captured on the
falling edge of PIXCLK. The specific relationship of
PIXCLK to these other outputs can be adjusted in two ways.
If Invert_Pixel_Clock is set, the sense of PIXCLK is
inverted from that shown in Figure 8. In addition, if the pixel
clock has been divided by Divide_Pixel_Clock, it can be
shifted relative to the other outputs by setting
Shift_Pixel_Clock.
PLL-Generated Master Clock
The PLL contains a prescaler to divide the input clock
applied on EXTCLK, a VCO to multiply the prescaler
output, and another divider stage to generate the output
clock. The clocking structure is shown in Figure 13. PLL
control registers can be programmed to generate desired
master clock frequency.
NOTE: The PLL control registers must be programmed
while the sensor is in the software Standby state.
The effect of programming the PLL divisors
while the sensor is in the streaming state is
undefined.
Figure 13. PLL-Generated Master Clock
EXTCLK
PLL Output Clock
PLL_n_divider +1
Pre PLL
PLL Input Clock
(VCO) Div 1
PLL_p1_divider +1PLL_m_factor
SYSCLK (PIXCLK)
N
Div
PLL
Multiplier
PFD
Output
PLL
P1M
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PLL Setup
The MT9P031 has a PLL which can be used to generate
the pixel clock internally.
To use the PLL:
1. Bring the MT9P031 up as normal, make sure that
fEXTCLK is between 6 and 27 MHz and then
power on the PLL by setting Power_PLL
(R0x10[0] = 1).
2. Set PLL_m_Factor, PLL_n_Divider, and
PLL_p1_Divider based on the desired input
(fEXTCLK) and output (fPIXCLK) frequencies.
Determine the M, N, and P1 values to achieve the
desired fPIXCLK using this formula:
fPIXCLK = (fEXTCLK × M) / (N × P1)
where
M = PLL_m_Factor
N = PLL_n_Divider + 1
P1 = PLL_p1_Divider + 1
2 MHz < fEXTCLK / N < 13.5 MHz
180 MHz < (fEXTCLK × M) / N < 360 MHz
NOTE: If P1 is odd (that is, PLL_p1_Divider is even),
the duty cycle of the internal system clock will
not be 50:50. In this case, it is important that
either a slower clock is used or all clock enable
bits are set in R101.
It is desirable to keep (fEXTCLK / n) as large as
possible within the limits. Also, ”m” must be
between 16 and 255, inclusive.
3. Wait 1ms to ensure that the VCO has locked.
4. Set Use_PLL (R0x10[1] = 1) to switch from
EXTCLK to the PLL-generated clock.
Standby and Chip Enable
The MT9P031 can be put in a low-power Standby state by
either method below:
1. Hard Standby: By pulling STANDBY_BAR LOW,
or
2. Soft Standby: By clearing the Chip_Enable
register field (R0x07[1] = 0).
When the sensor is put in standby, all internal clocks are
gated, and analog circuitry is put in a state that it draws
minimal power. The two wire serial interface is still active.
If the sensor was in continuous mode when put in standby,
it resumes from where it was when standby was deactivated.
Naturally, this frame and the next frame are corrupted,
though the sensor itself does not realize this. As this could
affect automatic black level calibration, it is recommended
that either the chip be paused (by setting Restart_Pause)
before being put in standby mode, or it be restarted (setting
Restart) upon resumption of operation.
Entering Soft Standby
REG= 0x0B, 0x0002
REG= 0x0B, 0x0003
REG= 0x07, 0x1F82
REG= 0x07, 0x1F80
REG= 0x0B, 0x0001
Leaving Soft Standby
REG= 0x0B, 0x0002
REG= 0x0B, 0x0003
REG= 0x07, 0x1F80
REG= 0x07, 0x1F82
REG= 0x0B, 0x0001
For maximum power savings in standby mode, EXTCLK
should not be toggling.
When standby mode is entered, either by clearing
Chip_Enable or by asserting STANDBY_BAR, the PLL is
disabled automatically or powered down. It must be
manually re-enabled when leaving standby as needed.
Full-Array Readout
The entire array, including dark pixels, can be read out
without digital processing or automatic black level
adjustments. This can be accomplished as follows:
1. Set Row_Start and Column_Start to 0.
2. Set Row_Size to 2003.
3. Set Column_Size to 2751.
4. Set Manual_BLC to 1.
5. Set Row_BLC to 0.
6. Set Row_Black_Default_Offset to 0.
7. Set Show_Dark_Rows and Show_Dark_Columns
to 0.
If automatic analog (coarse) BLC is desired, but no digital
processing, modify the above settings as follows:
1. Set Row_Start to 12.
2. Set Row_Size to 1993.
3. Set Manual_BLC to 0.
These settings result in the same array layout as above, but
only 22 dark rows are available at the top of the array; the
first eight are used in the black level algorithm, and there
should be a two-row buffer between the black region and the
active region.
Window Control
The output image window of the pixel (the FOV) is
defined by four register fields. Column_Start and Row_Start
define the X and Y coordinates of the upper-left corner of the
FOV. Column_Size defines the width of the FOV, and
Row_Size defines the height of the FOV in array pixels.
The Column_Start and Row_Start fields must be set to an
even number. The Column_Size and Row_Size fields must
be set to odd numbers (resulting in an even size for the FOV).
The Row_Start register should be set no lower than 12 if
either Manual_BLC is clear or Show_Dark_Rows is set.
If no special resolution modes are set (see below), the
width of the output image, W, is Column_Size + 1 and the
height, H, is Row_Size + 1.
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Readout Modes
Subsampling
By default, the resolution of the output image is the full
width and height of the FOV as defined in “Window
Control”. The output resolution can be reduced by two
methods: Skipping and Binning.
Row and column skip modes use subsampling to reduce
the output resolution without reducing FOV. The MT9P031
also has row and column binning modes, which can reduce
the impact of aliasing introduced by the use of skip modes.
This is achieved by the averaging of 2 or 3 adjacent rows and
columns (adjacent same-color pixels). Both 2X and 4X
binning modes are supported. Rows and columns can be
binned independently.
Skipping
Skipping reduces resolution by using only selected pixels
from the FOV in the output image. In skip mode, entire rows
and columns of pixels are not sampled, resulting in a lower
resolution output image. A skip 2X mode skips one Bayer
pair of pixels for every pair output. Skip 3X skips two pairs
for each one pair output. Rows and columns are always read
out in pairs. If skip 2X mode is enabled with otherwise
default sensor settings, the columns in the output image
correspond to the pixel array columns 16, 17, 20, 21, 24,
25... .
Figure 14. Eight Pixels in Normal and Column Skip 2X Readout Modes
G0 R0
[11:0] [11:0]
G1 R1
[11:0]
G2
[11:0]
R2
[11:0] [11:0]
G3 R3
[11:0]
G0
[11:0]
R0
[11:0]
G2
[11:0]
R2
[11:0] [11:0]
LV
Normal readout
DOUT[11:0]
LV
Column skip 2X readout
DOUT[11:0]
Skipping can be enabled separately for rows and columns.
To enable skip mode, set either or both of Row_Skip and
Column_Skip to the number of pixel pairs that should be
skipped for each pair used in the output image. For example,
to set column skip 2X mode, set Column_Skip to “1”.
The size of the output image is reduced by the skip mode
as shown in the following two equations:
(eq. 1)
W+2 ceil((Column_Size )1))ń(2 (Column_Skip )1)))
H+2 ceil((Row_Size )1))ń(2 (Row_Skip )1))) (eq. 2)
Figure 15. Pixel Readout (no skipping)
X incrementing
Y incrementing
Figure 16. Pixel Readout (Column Skip 2X)
X incrementing
Y incrementing
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Figure 17. Pixel Readout (Row Skip 2X)
X incrementing
Y incrementing
Figure 18. Pixel Readout
(Column Skip 2X, Row Skip 2X)
Y incrementing
X incrementing
Binning
Binning reduces resolution by combining adjacent
same-color imager pixels to produce one output pixel. All of
the pixels in the FOV contribute to the output image in bin
mode. This can result in a more pleasing output image with
reduced subsampling artifacts. It also improves low-light
performance. For columns, the combination step can be
either an averaging or summing operation. Depending on
lighting conditions, one or the other may be desirable. In
low-light conditions, summing produces a gain roughly
equivalent to the column bin factor. Column summing may
be enabled by setting Column_Sum.
Binning works in conjunction with skipping. Pixels that
would be skipped because of the Column_Skip and
Row_Skip settings can be averaged instead by setting
Column_Bin and Row_Bin to the number of neighbor pixels
to be averaged with each output pixel. For example, to set
bin 2X mode, set Column_Skip and Column_Bin to 1.
Additionally, Column_Start must be a multiple of
(2 * (Column_Bin + 1)) and Row_Start must be a multiple
of (2 * (Row_Bin + 1)).
Only certain combinations of binning and skipping are
allowed.
These are shown in Table 12. If an illegal skip value is
selected for a bin mode, a legal value is selected instead.
Table 12. LEGAL VALUES FOR COLUMN_SKIP BASED ON COLUMN_BIN
Column_Bin Legal Values for Column_Skip
0 (no binning) 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
1 (Bin 2x) 1, 3, 5
3 (Bin 4x) 3
1. Ensure that Column_Start (R0x02) is set in the form shown below, where n is an integer:
Mirror Column = 0 Mirror Column = 1
no bin 4n 4n + 2
Bin 2x 8n 8n + 4
Bin 4x 16n 16n + 8
Bin mode is illustrated in Figure 19 and Figure 20.
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Figure 19. Pixel Readout (Column Bin 2X) Figure 20. Pixel Readout
(Column Bin 2X, Row Bin 2X)
Y incrementing
X incrementing
X incrementing
Y incrementing
Mirror
Column Mirror Image
By setting R0x20[14] = 1, the readout order of the
columns is reversed, as shown in Figure 21. The starting
color, thus Bayer pattern, is preserved when mirroring the
columns.
Figure 21. Six Pixels in Normal and Column Mirror Readout Modes
DOUT [11:0]
LINE_VALID
Normal readout
G0
(11:0)
R0
(11:0)
G1
(11:0)
R1
(11:0)
G2
(11:0)
R2
(11:0)
DOUT[11:0]
Reverse readout
G2
(11:0)
R2
(11:0)
R1
(11:0)
G1
(11:0)
R0
(11:0)
G0
(11:0)
Row Mirror Image
By setting R0x20[15] = 1, the readout order of the rows is
reversed as shown in Figure 22. The starting color, thus
Bayer pattern, is preserved when mirroring the rows.
Figure 22. Six Rows in Normal and Row Mirror Readout Modes
DOUT[11:0]
FRAME_VALID
Normal readout
Row0
(11:0)
Row1
(11:0)
Row2
(11:0)
Row3
(11:0)
Row4
(11:0)
Row5
(11:0)
DOUT[11:0]
Reverse readout
Row4
(11:0)
Row5
(11:0)
Row3
(11:0)
Row2
(11:0)
Row1
(11:0)
Row0
(11:0)
By default, active pixels in the resulting image are output
in row-major order (an entire row is output before the next
row is begun), from lowest row/column number to highest.
If desired, the output (and sampling) order of the rows and
columns can be reversed. This affects only pixels in the
active region defined above, not any pixels read out as dark
rows or dark columns. When the readout direction is
reversed, the color order is reversed as well (red, green, red,
and so on, instead of green, red, green, and so on, for
example).
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If row binning is combined with row mirroring, the
binning is still done in the positive direction. Therefore, if
the first output row in bin 2X + row mirror was 1997, pixels
on rows 1997 and 1999 would be averaged together. The
next pixel output would be from rows 1996 and 1998,
followed by the average of 1993 and 1995.
For column mirroring plus binning, the span of pixels used
should be the same as with non-mirror mode.
Maintaining a Constant Frame Rate
Maintaining a constant frame rate while continuing to
have the ability to adjust certain parameters is the desired
scenario. This is not always possible, however, because
register updates are synchronized to the read pointer, and the
shutter pointer for a frame is usually active during the
readout of the previous frame. Therefore, any register
changes that could affect the row time or the set of rows
sampled causes the shutter pointer to start over at the
beginning of the next frame.
By default, the following register fields cause a “bubble”
in the output rate (that is, the vertical blank increases for one
frame) if they are written in continuous mode, even if the
new value would not change the resulting frame rate:
Row_Start
Row_Size
Column_Size
Horizontal_Blank
Vertical_Blank
Shutter_Delay
Mirror_Row
Row_Bin
Row_Skip
Column_Skip
The size of this bubble is (SW × tROW), calculating the
row time according to the new settings.
The Shutter_Width_Lower and Shutter_Width_Upper
fields may be written without causing a bubble in the output
rate under certain circumstances. Because the shutter
sequence for the next frame often is active during the output
of the current frame, this would not be possible without
special provisions in the hardware. Writes to these registers
take effect two frames after the frame they are written, which
allows the shutter width to increase without interrupting the
output or producing a corrupt frame (as long as the change
in shutter width does not affect the frame time).
Synchronizing Register Writes to Frame Boundaries
Changes to most register fields that affect the size or
brightness of an image take effect on the frame after the one
during which they are written. These fields are noted as
“synchronized to frame boundaries” in Table 12 of the
register reference. To ensure that a register update takes
effect on the next frame, the write operation must be
completed after the leading edge of FV and before the
trailing edge of FV.
As a special case, in Snapshot modes (see “Operating
Modes”), register writes that occur after FV but before the
next trigger will take effect immediately on the next frame,
as if there had been a Restart. However, if the trigger for the
next frame in ERS Snapshot mode occurs during FV, register
writes take effect as with continuous mode.
Additional control over the timing of register updates can
be achieved by using synchronize_changes. If this bit is set,
writes to certain register fields that affect the brightness of
the output image do not take effect immediately. Instead, the
new value is remembered internally. When
synchronize_changes is cleared, all the updates
simultaneously take effect on the next frame (as if they had
all been written the instant synchronize_changes was
cleared). Register fields affected by this bit are identified in
Table 13 of the register reference.
Fields not identified as being framesynchronized or
affected by synchronize_changes are updated immediately
after the register write is completed. The effect of these
registers on the next frame can be difficult to predict if they
affect the shutter pointer.
Restart
To restart the MT9P031 at any time during the operation
of the sensor, write a “1” to the restart register (R0x0B[0] =
1). This has two effects: first, the current frame is interrupted
immediately. Second, any writes to frame-synchronized
registers and the shutter width registers take effect
immediately, and a new frame starts (in continuous mode).
Register updates being held by synchronize_changes do not
take effect until that bit is cleared. The current row and one
following row complete before the new frame is started, so
the time between issuing the Restart and the beginning of the
next frame can vary by about tROW.
If Pause_Restart is set, rather than immediately beginning
the next frame after a restart in continuous mode, the sensor
pauses at the beginning of the next frame until Pause_Restart
is cleared. This can be used to achieve a deterministic time
period from clearing the Pause_Restart bit to the beginning
of the first frame, meaning that the controller does not need
to be tightly synchronized to LV or FV.
NOTE: When Pause_Restart is cleared, be sure to leave
Restart set to “1” for proper operation. The
Restart bit will be cleared automatically by the
device.
Image Acquisition Modes
The MT9P031 supports two image acquisition modes
(Shutter Types) (see “Operating Modes”), electronic rolling
shutter and global reset release.
Electronic Rolling Shutter
The ERS modes take pictures by scanning the rows of the
sensor twice in the order described in “Full-Array Readout”.
On the first scan, each row is released from reset, starting the
exposure. On the second scan, the row is sampled,
processed, and returned to the reset state. The exposure for
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any row is therefore the time between the first and second
scans. Each row is exposed for the same duration, but at
slightly different point in time, which can cause a shear in
moving subjects.
Whenever the mode is changed to an ERS mode (even
from another ERS mode), and before the first frame
following reset, there is an anti-blooming sequence where
all rows are placed in reset. This sequence must complete
before continuous readout begins. This delay is:
tALLRESET = 16 × 2004 × tACLK
Global Reset Release
The GRR modes attempt to address the shearing effect by
starting all rows’ exposures at the same time. Instead of the
first scan used in ERS mode, the reset to each row is released
simultaneously. The second scan occurs as normal, so the
exposure time for each row would different. Typically, an
external mechanical shutter would be used to stop the
exposure of all rows simultaneously.
In GRR modes, there is a startup overhead before each
frame as all rows are initially placed in the reset state
(tALLRESET). Unlike ERS mode, this delay always occurs
before each frame. However, it occurs as soon as possible
after the preceding frame, so typically the time from trigger
to the start of exposure does not include this delay. To ensure
that this is the case, the first trigger must occur no sooner
than tALLRESET after the previous frame is read out.
Exposure
The nominal exposure time, tEXP, is the effective shutter
time in ERS modes, and is defined by the shutter width, SW,
and the shutter overhead, SO, which includes the effect of
Shutter_Delay. Exposure time for other modes is defined
relative to this time. Increasing Shutter_Delay (SD)
decreases the exposure time. Exposure times are typically
specified in units of row time, although it is possible to
fine-tune exposures in units of tACLKs (where tACLK is 2
* tPIXCLK).
tEXP = SW × tROW – SO × 2 × tPIXCLK
where:
SW = max(1, (2 * 16 × Shutter_Width_Upper) +
Shutter_Width_Lower)
SO = 208 × (Row_Bin + 1) + 98 + min(SD, SDmax) – 94
SD = Shutter_Delay + 1
SDmax = 1232; if SW < 3
1504, otherwise
The exposure time is calculated by determining the reset
time of each pixel row (with time 0 being the start of the first
row time), and subtracting it from the sample time. Under
normal conditions in ERS modes, every pixel should end up
with the same exposure time. In global shutter release
modes, or in row binning modes, the exposure times of
individual pixels can vary.
In global shutter release modes (described later) exposure
time starts simultaneously for all rows, but still ends as
defined above. In a real system, the exposure would be
stopped by a mechanical shutter, which would effectively
stop the exposure to all rows simultaneously. Because this
specification does not consider the effect of an external
shutter, each output row’s exposure time will differ by
tROW from the previous row.
Global shutter modes also introduce a constant added to
the shutter time for each row, because the exposure starts
during the global shutter sequence, and not during any row’s
shutter sequence. For each additional row in a row bin, this
offset will increase by the length of the shutter sequence.
In Bulb_Exposure modes (see details in Table 13), the
exposure time is determined by the width of the TRIGGER
pulse rather than the shutter width registers. In ERS bulb
mode, it is still a multiple of row times, and the shutter
overhead equation still applies. In GRR bulb mode, the
exposure time is granular to ACLKs, and shutter overhead
(and thus shutter_delay) has no effect.
Operating Modes
In the default operating mode, the MT9P031 continuously
samples and outputs frames. It can be put in “snapshot” or
triggered mode by setting snapshot, which means that it
samples and outputs a frame only when triggered. To leave
snapshot mode, it is necessary to first clear Snapshot then
issue a restart.
When in snapshot mode, the sensor can use the ERS or the
GRR. The exposure can be controlled as normal, with the
shutter_width_lower and shutter_width_upper registers, or
it can be controlled using the external TRIGGER signal. The
various operating modes are summarized in Table 13.
Table 13. OPERATING MODE
Mode Settings Description
ERS Continuous Default Frames are output continuously at the frame rate defined by tFRAME. ERS is
used, and the exposure time is electronically controlled to be tEXP.
ERS Snapshot Snapshot = 1 Frames are output one at a time, with each frame initiated by a trigger. ERS is
used, and the exposure time is electronically controlled to be tEXP.
ERS Bulb Snapshot = 1;
Bulb_Exposure = 1
Frames are output one at a time, with each frame’s exposure initiated by a trigger.
ERS is used. End of exposure and readout are initiated by a second trigger.
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Table 13. OPERATING MODE (continued)
Mode DescriptionSettings
GRR Snapshot Snapshot = 1;
Global_Reset = 1
Frames are output one at a time, with each frame initiated by a trigger. GRR is
used. Readout is electronically triggered based on SW.
GRR Bulb Snapshot = 1;
Bulb_Exposure = 1;
Global_Reset = 1
Frames are output one at a time, with each frame initiated by a trigger. GRR is
used. Readout is initiated by a second trigger.
1. In ERS bulb mode, SW must be greater than 4 (use trigger wider than tROW * 4).
All operating modes share a common set of operations:
1. Wait for the first trigger, then start the exposure.
2. Wait for the second trigger, then start the readout.
The first trigger is by default automatic, producing
continuous images. If snapshot is set, the first trigger can
either be a low level on the TRIGGER pin or writing a “1”
to the trigger register field. If Invert_Trigger is set, the first
trigger is a high level on TRIGGER pin (or a “1” written to
trigger register field). Because TRIGGER is level-sensitive,
multiple frames can be output (with a frame rate of
tFRAME) by holding TRIGGER pin at the triggering level.
The second trigger is also normally automatic, and
generally occurs SW row times after the exposure is started.
If Bulb_Exposure is set, the second trigger can either be a
high level on TRIGGER or a write to Restart. If
Invert_Trigger is set, the second trigger is a low level on
TRIGGER (or a Restart). In bulb modes, the minimum
possible exposure time depends on the mechanical shutter
used.
After one frame has been output, the chip will reset step
1, above, eventually waiting for the first trigger again. The
next trigger may be issued after ((VB - 8) x tROW) in ERS
modes or tALLREST in GRR modes.
The choice of shutter type is made by Global_Reset. If it
is set, the GRR shutter is used; otherwise, ERS is used. The
two shutters are described in “Electronic Rolling Shutter”
and “Global Reset Release”.
The default ERS continuous mode is shown in Figure 8.
Figure 23 shows default signal timing for ERS snapshot
modes, while Figure 24 shows default signal timing for
GRR snapshot modes.
Figure 23. ERS Snapshot Timing
TRIGGER
STROBE
FV
LV
DOUT
TRIGGER
STROBE
FV
LV
DOUT
(a) ERS Snapshot
(b) ERS Bulb
TT1 TSE TSW TT2
(H + VB) x tROW
(H + VB) xtROW
8 x tROW tROW
tROW
8 x tROW
tROW
8 x tROW
tROW
SW xtROW
8 x tROW
First Row Exposure
Second Row Exposure
First Row Exposure
Second Row Exposure
SW x tROW
TT1
TSW
TT2
TSE
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Figure 24. GRR Snapshot Timing
TRIGGER
STROBE
FV
LV
DOUT
TRIGGER
STROBE
FV
LV
DOUT
(a) GRR Snapshot
(b) GRR Bulb
TSE TSW TT2
TSW
TSE TT2
VB x tROW + 2000 xtACLK
tROW
8 x tROW
tROW
8 x tROW
First Row Exposure
First Row Exposure
VB xtROW + 2000 xtACLK
Second Row Exposure
Second Row Exposure
SW x tROW + 2000 x tACLK
SW x tROW + 2000 x tACLK
TT1
TT1
Strobe Control
To support synchronization of the exposure with external
events such as a flash or mechanical shutter, the MT9P031
produces a STROBE output. By default, this signal is
asserted for approximately the time that all rows are
simultaneously exposing, minus the vertical blanking time,
as shown in Figure 23 and Figure 24. Also indicated in these
figures are the leading and trailing edges of STROBE, which
an be configured to occur at one of several timepoints. The
leading edge of STROBE occurs at STROBE_Start, and the
trailing edge at STROBE_End, which are set to codes
described in Table 14.
Table 14. STROBE TIMEPOINTS
Symbol Timepoint Code
TT1 Trigger 1 (start of shutter scan)
TSE Start of exposure (all rows simultaneously exposing) offset by VB 1
TSW End of shutter width (expiration of the internal shutter width counter) 2
TT2 Trigger 2 (start of readout scan) 3
If STROBE_Start and STROBE_End are set to the same
timepoint, the strobe is a tROW wide pulse starting at the
STROBE_Start timepoint. If the settings are such that the
strobe would occur after the trailing edge of FV, the strobe
may be only tACLK wide; however, because there is no
concept of a row at that time. The sense of the STROBE
signal can be inverted by setting Invert_Strobe (R0x1E[5] =
1. To use strobe as a flash in snapshot modes or with
mechanical shutter, set the Strobe_Enable register bit field
R0x1E[4] = 1.
Signal Chain and Datapath
The signal chain and datapath are shown in Figure 25.
Each color is processed independently, including separate
gain and offset settings. Voltages sampled from the pixel
array are first passed through an analog gain stage, which
can produce gain factors between 1 and 8. An analog offset
is then applied, and the signal is sent through a 12-bit
analog-to-digital converter. In the digital space, a digital
gain factor of between 1 and 16 is applied, and then a digital
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offset of between –2048 and 2047 is added. The resulting
12-bit pixel value is then output on the DOUT[11:0] ports.
The analog offset applied is determined automatically by
the black level calibration algorithm, which attempts to shift
the output of the analog signal chain so that black is at a
particular level. The digital offset is a fine-tuning of the
analog offset.
Figure 25. Signal path
Pixel
Voltage
Digital
Gain
Analog
Gain
Digital Datapath
X+
Analog Signal Chain
X+
Digital
Offset
Correction
Black
Level
Calibration
DOUT[11:0]
ADC
Analog
Offset
Gain
There are two types of gain supported: analog gain and
digital gain. Combined, gains of between 1 and 128 are
possible. The recommended gain settings are shown in
Table 15.
Table 15. GAIN INCREMENT SETTINGS
Gain Range Increments Digital Gain Analog Multipier Analog Gain
1– 4 0.125 0 0 8–32
4.25–8 0.25 0 1 17–32
9–128 1 1–120 1 32
1. Analog gain should be maximized before applying digital gain.
2. The recommended minimum gain is 1.38 (0x000B)
3. For optimal sensor performance, when using gain settings <= 4.0, also set reserved register R0x3E = 0x0080 and for gain settings >4.0,
set register R0x003E=0x00C0.
The combined gain for a color C is given by: GC = AGC x DGC.
Analog Gain
The analog gain is specified independently for each color
channel. There are two components, the gain and the
multiplier. The gain is specified by Green1_Analog_Gain,
Red_Analog_Gain, Blue_Analog_Gain, and
Green2_Analog_Gain in steps of 0.125. The analog
multiplier is specified by Green1_Analog_Multiplier,
Red_Analog_Multiplier, Blue_Analog_Multiplier, and
Green2_Analog_Multiplier. These combine to form the
analog gain for a given color C as shown in this equation:
AGC = (1 + C_Analog_Multiplier) × (C_Analog_Gain /
8)
The gain component can range from 0 to 7.875 in steps of
0.125, and the multiplier component can be either 0 or 1
(resulting in a multiplier of 1 or 2). However, it is best to keep
the “gain” component between 1 and 4 for the best noise
performance, and use the multiplier for gains between 4 and
8.
Digital Gain
The digital gain is specified independently for each color
channel in steps of 0.125. It is controlled by the register
fields Green1_Digital_Gain, Red_Digital_Gain,
Blue_Digital_Gain, and Green2_Digital_Gain. The digital
gain for a color C is given by:
DGC = 1 + (C_Digital_Gain / 8)
Offset
The MT9P031 sensor can apply an offset or shift to the
image data in a number of ways.
An analog offset can be applied on a color-wise basis to
the pixel voltage as it enters the ADC. This makes it possible
to adjust for offset introduced in the pixel sampling and gain
stages to be removed, centering the resulting voltage swing
in the ADC’s range. This offset can be automatically
determined by the sensor using the automatic black level
calibration (BLC) circuit, or it can be set manually by the
user. It is a fairly coarse adjustment, with adjustment step
sizes of 4 to 8 LSBs.
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Digital offset is also added on a color-wise and line-wise
basis to fine tune the black level of the output image. This
offset is based on an average black level taken from each
row’s dark columns, and is automatically determined by the
digital row-wise black level calibration (RBLC) circuit. If
the RBLC circuit is not used, a user-defined offset can be
applied instead. This offset has a resolution of 1 LSBs.
A digital offset is added on a color-wise basis to account
for channel offsets that can be introduced due to “even” and
“odd” pixels of the same color going through a slightly
different ADC chain. This offset is automatically
determined based on dark row data, but it can also be
manually set.
Analog Black Level Calibration
The MT9P031 black level calibration circuitry provides
a feedback control system since adjustments to the analog
offset are imprecise by nature. The goal is that within the
dark row region of any supported output image size, the
offset should have been adjusted such that the average black
level falls within the specified target thresholds.
The analog offsets normally need a major adjustment only
when leaving the Reset state or when there has been a change
to a colors analog gain. Factors like shutter width and
temperature have lower-order impact, and generally only
require a minor adjustment to the analog offsets. The
MT9P031 has various calibration modes to keep the system
stable while still supporting the need for rapid offset
adjustments when necessary.
The two basic steps of black level calibration are:
1. Take a sample.
2. If necessary, adjust the analog offset.
Black level calibration is normally done separately for
each color channel, and different channels can use different
sample or adjustment methods at the same time. However,
because both Green1 and Green2 pixels go through the same
signal chain, and Red and Blue pixels likewise go through
the same signal chain, it is expected that the chosen offset for
these pairs should be the same as long as the gains are the
same. If Lock_Green_Calibration is set, and
(Green1_Analog_Gain = Green2_Analog_Gain) and
(Green1_Analog_Multiplier = Green2_Analog_
Multiplier), the calculated or user-specified Green1_Offset
is used for both green channels. Similarly, if
Lock_Red/Blue_Calibration is set, and (Red_Analog_Gain
= Blue_Analog_Gain) and (Red_Analog_Multiplier =
Blue_Analog_Multiplier), the calculated or user-specified
Red_Offset is used for both the red and blue channels.
The current values of the offsets can be read from the
Green1_Offset, Red_Offset, Blue_Offset, and
Green2_Offset registers. Writes to these registers when
Manual_BLC is set change the offsets being used. In
automatic BLC mode, writes to these registers are effective
when manual mode is re-entered. In Manual_BLC mode, no
sampling or adjusting takes place for any color.
Digital Black Level Calibration
Digital black level calibration is the final calculation
applied to pixel data before it is output. It provides a precise
black level to complement the coarser-grained analog black
level calibration, and also corrects for black level shift
introduced by digital gain. This correction applies to the
active columns for all rows, including dark rows.
Test Patterns
The MT9P031 has the capability of injecting a number of
test patterns into the top of the datapath to debug the digital
logic. With one of the test patterns activated, any of the
datapath functions can be enabled to exercise it in a
deterministic fashion. Test patterns are enabled when
Enable_Test_Pattern is set. Only one of the test patterns can
be enabled at a given point in time by setting the
Test_Pattern_Mode register according to Table 16. When
test patterns are enabled the active area will receive the value
specified by the selected test pattern and the dark pixels will
receive the value in Test_Pattern_Green for green pixels,
Test_Pattern_Blue for blue pixels, and Test_Pattern_Red for
red pixels’+.
NOTE: ON Semiconductor recommends turning off
black level calibration (BLC) when Test Pattern
is enabled, otherwise some of the test patterns
will not be properly output.
Table 16. TEST PATTERN MODES
Test_Pattern_Mode Test Pattern Output
0Color field (normal operation)
1Horizontal gradient
2Vertical gradient
3Diagonal gradient
4Classic test pattern
5Walking 1s
6Monochrome horizontal bars
7Monochrome vertical bars
8Vertical color bars
Classic Test Pattern
When selected, a value from Test_Data will be sent
through the digital pipeline instead of sampled data from the
sensor. The value will alternate between Test_Data for even
and odd columns.
Color Field
When selected, the value for each pixel is determined by
its color. Green pixels will receive the value in
Test_Pattern_Green, red pixels will receive the value in
Test_Pattern_Red, and blue pixels will receive the value in
Test_Pattern_Blue.
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Vertical Color Bars
When selected, a typical color bar pattern will be sent
through the digital pipeline.
Horizontal Gradient
When selected, a horizontal gradient will be produced
based on a counter which increments on every active pixel.
Vertical Gradient
When selected, a vertical gradient will be produced based
on a counter which increments on every active row.
Diagonal Gradient
When selected, a diagonal gradient will be produced
based on the counter used by the horizontal and vertical
gradients.
Walking 1s
When selected, a walking 1s pattern will be sent through
the digital pipeline. The first value in each row is 1.
Monochrome Vertical Bars
When selected, vertical monochrome bars will be sent
through the digital pipeline. The width of each bar can be set
in Test_Pattern_Bar_Width and the intensity of each bar is
set by Test_Pattern_Green for even bars and
Test_Pattern_Blue for odd bars.
Monochrome Horizontal Bars
When selected, horizontal monochrome bars will be sent
through the digital pipeline. The width of each bar can be set
in Test_Pattern_Bar_Width and the intensity of each bar is
set by Test_Pattern_Green for even bars and
Test_Pattern_Blue for odd bars.
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SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS
Figure 26. Typical Spectral Characteristics
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
350 450 550 650 750 850 950
R
Gr
1050
B
Gb
Wavelength (nm)
QE (%)
CRA vs. Image Height Plot
Image Height CRA
(deg)
(%) (mm)
CRA Design
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0 102030405060708090100110
Image He ight (%)
CRA (deg)
Figure 27. CRA vs. Image Height (7 deg)
0 0 0
5 0.178 0.35
10 0.356 0.70
15 0.535 1.05
20 0.713 1.40
25 0.891 1.75
30 1.069 2.10
35 1.247 2.45
40 1.426 2.80
45 1.604 3.15
50 1.782 3.50
55 1.960 3.85
60 2.138 4.20
65 2.317 4.55
70 2.495 4.90
75 2.673 5.25
80 2.851 5.60
85 3.029 5.95
90 3.208 6.30
95 3.386 6.65
100 3.564 7.00
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ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Two-Wire Serial Register Interface
The electrical characteristics of the two-wire serial
register interface (SCLK, SDATA) are shown in Figure 28
and Table 17.
Figure 28. Two-Wire Serial Bus Timing Parameters
S
S
DATA
CLK
Write Start Stop
SD
ACK
S
ATA
CLK
Read Start ACK
tr_clk tf_clk
90%
10%
tr_sdat tf_sdat
90%
10%
tSDH tSDS tSHAW tAHSW tSTPStTPHS
Register Address
Bit 7
Write Address
Bit 0 Register Value
Bit 0
Register Value
Bit 7
Read Address
Bit 0
Register Value
Bit 0
Write Address
Bit 7
Read Address
Bit 7
tSHAR
t
SDSR
tSDHR
tAHSR
tSRTH tSCLK
Notes: Read sequence: For an 8-bit READ, read waveforms start after WRITE command and register address are issued.
Table 17. TWO-WIRE SERIAL BUS CHARACTERISTICS
Symbol Definition Condition Min Typ Max Unit
fSCLK Serial interface input clock frequency 400 kHz
tSCLK Serial Input clock period 2.5 msec
SCLK duty cycle 40 50 60 %
tr_sclk SCLK rise time – 34 – ns
tf_sclk SCLK fall time 8 – ns
tr_sdat SDATA rise time – 34 – ns
tf_sdat SDATA fall time – 10 – ns
tSRTH Start hold time WRITE/READ 0 10 28 ns
tSDH SDATA hold WRITE 0 0 0 ns
tSDS SDATA setup WRITE 0 19.9 59.9 ns
tSHAW SDATA hold to ACK WRITE 279 281 300 ns
tAHSW ACK hold to SDATA WRITE 279 281 300 ns
tSTPS Stop setup time WRITE/READ 0 0 0 ns
tSTPH Stop hold time WRITE/READ 0 0 0 ns
tSHAR SDATA hold to ACK READ 279 284 300 ns
tAHSR ACK hold to SDATA READ 279 284 300 ns
tSDHR SDATA hold READ 0 0 0 ns
‘FFH «‘FLH
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Table 17. TWO-WIRE SERIAL BUS CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
UnitMaxTypMinConditionDefinitionSymbol
tSDSR SDATA setup READ 0 19.9 59.9 ns
CIN_SI Serial interface input pin capacitance – 3.5 – pF
CLOAD_SD SDATA max load capacitance 15 – pF
RSD SDATA pull-up resistor – 1.5 – kΩ
I/O Timing
By default, the MT9P031 launches pixel data, FV and LV
with the rising edge of PIXCLK. The expectation is that the
user captures DOUT[11:0], FV and LV using the falling edge
of PIXCLK.
See Figure 29 and Table 18 for I/O timing (AC)
characteristics.
Figure 29. I/O Timing Diagram
Data[7:0]
FRAME_VALID/
LINE_VALID FRAME_VALID leads LINE_VALID by 609 PIXCLKs. FRAME_VALID trails
LINE_VALID by 16 PIXCLKs.
PIXCLK
*PLL disabled for tCP
EXTCLK
tCP
tR
tEXTCLK
tFtRP tFP
tPD
tPD
tPFH
tPLH tP
F
tP
L
Pxl _ 0 Pxl _ 1 Pxl _ 2 Pxl _ n
90 %
10 %
90 %
10 %
Table 18. I/O TIMING CHARACTERISTICS
Symbol Definition Condition Min Typ Max Unit
fEXTCLK1 Input clock frequency PLL enabled 6 27 MHz
tEXTCLK1 Input clock period PLL enabled 166 – 37 ns
fEXTCLK2 Input clock frequency PLL disabled 6 96 MHz
tEXTCLK2 Input clock period PLL disabled 125 10.4 ns
tRInput clock rise time 0.03 1 V/ns
tFInput clock fall time 0.03 1 V/ns
tRP Pixclk rise time 0.03 1 V/ns
tFP Pixclk fall time 0.03 1 V/ns
Clock duty cycle 40 50 60 %
t(PIX JITTER) Jitter on PIXCLK 1.03 ns
tJITTER1 Input clock jitter 48 MHz – 300 – ps
tJITTER2 Input clock jitter 96 MHz – 220 – ps
tCP EXTCLK to PIXCLK propagation delay Nominal voltages 11.5 17.7 19.1 ns
fPIXCLK PIXCLK frequency Default 6 96 MHz
tPD PIXCLK to data valid Default 0.8 2.1 3.9 ns
tPFH PIXCLK to FV HIGH Default 2.8 4.3 5.9 ns
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Table 18. I/O TIMING CHARACTERISTICS
UnitMaxTypMinConditionDefinitionSymbol
tPLH PIXCLK to LV HIGH Default 2.2 3.5 5.9 ns
tPFL PIXCLK to FV LOW Default 2.4 4.2 5.9 ns
tPLL PIXCLK to LV LOW Default 2.6 4.1 5.9 ns
CLOAD Output load capacitance <10 pF
CIN Input pin capacitance 2.5 pF
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DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
The DC electrical characteristics are shown in Table 19,
Table 20 and Table 21.
Table 19. DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Symbol Definition Condition Min Typ Max Unit
VDD Core digital voltage 1.7 1.8 1.9 V
VDD_IO I/O digital voltage 1.7 1.8/2.8 3.1 V
VAA Analog voltage 2.6 2.8 3.1 V
VAA_PIX Pixel supply voltage 2.6 2.8 3.1 V
VDD_PLL PLL supply voltage 2.6 2.8 3.1 V
VIH
Input HIGH voltage
VDD_IO = 2.8 V 2 3.3 V
VDD_IO = 1.8 V 1.3 2.3 V
VIL
Input LOW voltage
VDD_IO = 2.8 V –0.3 – 0.8 V
VDD_IO = 1.8 V –0.3 – 0.5 V
IIN Input leakage current No pull-up resistor;
VIN = VDD_IO or DGND
– <10 – μA
VOH
Output HIGH voltage
VDD_IO = 1.8 V 1.3 1.82 V
VDD_IO = 2.8 V 2.3 – V
VOL
Output LOW voltage
VDD_IO = 2.8 V 0.16 0.35 V
VDD_IO = 2.8 V 0.6 V
IOH Output HIGH current At specified VOH = VDD_IO 400 mv
at 1.7 V VDD_IO
8.9 22.3 mA
IOL Output LOW current At specified VOL = 400mv at 1.7 V VDD_IO 2.6 5.1 mA
IOZ Tri-state output leakage
current
VIN = VDD_IO or GND 2 μA
IDD1Digital operating current Parallel mode 96 MHz full frame
nominal voltage, PLL enabled
28 35 mA
IDD_IO1 I/O digital operating current Parallel mode 96 MHz full frame
nominal voltage, PLL enabled
38.6 50 mA
IAA1Analog operating current Parallel mode 96 MHz full frame
nominal voltage, PLL enabled
72 80 mA
IAA_PIX1 Pixel supply current Parallel mode 96 MHz full frame
nominal voltage, PLL enabled
2.4 6 mA
IDD_PLL1 PLL supply current Parallel mode 96 MHz full frame
nominal voltage, PLL enabled
5 6 mA
IDD2Digital operating current Parallel mode 96 MHz 4X binning
nominal voltage, PLL enabled
15 35 mA
IDD_IO2 I/O digital operating current Parallel mode 96 MHz 4X binning
nominal voltage, PLL enabled
6.4 50 mA
IAA2Analog operating current Parallel mode 96 MHz 4X binning
nominal voltage, PLL enabled
69 80 mA
IAA_PIX2 Pixel supply current Parallel mode 96 MHz 4X binning
nominal voltage, PLL Enabled
3.4 6 mA
IDD_PLL2 PLL supply current Parallel mode 96 MHz 4X binning
nominal voltage, PLL enabled
5 6 mA
ISTBY1Hard standby current PLL
enabled
EXTCLK enabled – <500 – μA
ISTBY2Hard standby current PLL
disabled
EXTCLK disabled <50 μA
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Table 19. DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
UnitMaxTypMinConditionDefinitionSymbol
ISTBY3Soft standby current PLL
enabled
EXTCLK enabled (PLL enabled) – <500 – μA
ISTBY4Soft standby current PLL
disabled
EXTCLK enabled (PLL disabled) – <500 – μA
Product parametric performance is indicated in the Electrical Characteristics for the listed test conditions, unless otherwise noted. Product
performance may not be indicated by the Electrical Characteristics if operated under different conditions.
Table 20. POWER CONSUMPTION
Mode Full Resolution (14 fps) 4X Binning Unit
Streaming 381 262 mW
CAUTION: Stresses greater than those listed in Table 21 may
cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress
rating only, and functional operation of the device at
these or any other conditions above those indicated in
the operational sections of this specification is not
implied.
Table 21. ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Symbol Definition Condition Min Max Unit
VDD_MAX Core digital voltage –0.3 1.9 V
VDD_IO_MAX I/O digital voltage –0.3 3.1 V
VAA_MAX Analog voltage –0.3 3.1 V
VAA_PIX_MAX Pixel supply voltage –0.3 3.1 V
VDD_PLL_MAX PLL supply voltage –0.3 3.1 V
VIN_MAX Input voltage –0.3 3.4 V
IDD_MAX Digital operating current 35 mA
IDD_IO_MAX I/O digital operating current 100 mA
IAA_MAX Analog operating current 95 mA
IAA_PIX_MAX Pixel supply current 6 mA
IDD_PLL_MAX PLL supply current 6 mA
TOP Operating temperature Measure at junction –30 70 °C
TST Storage temperature –40 125 °C
Stresses exceeding those listed in the Maximum Ratings table may damage the device. If any of these limits are exceeded, device functionality
should not be assumed, damage may occur and reliability may be affected.
1. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect reliability.
2. To keep dark current and shot noise artifacts from impacting image quality, care should be taken to keep TOP at a minimum.
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ILCC48 10x10
CASE 847AA
ISSUE O
DATE 30 DEC 2014
MECHANICAL CASE OUTLINE
PACKAGE DIMENSIONS
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